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  • addiction
  • Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 7 types of tolerance to chemical substances , all of which have at least some impact on the processes of drug abuse and addiction. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • Tolerance invariably leads many addiction-prone people to use more and more of a substance in order to achieve the same results, but there's more to it than this alone. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • Acute tolerance allows the brain in part to use areas of the brain not affected by the substance in question, then revert to its normal state when the drug is not present, barring of course long-term changes related to chronic drug abuse and addiction. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • This data supports the notion that slowpoke mediated tolerance to sedation is part of a homeostatic adaptation that compensates for changes in neural activity caused by drugs and represents a step forward in the understanding of the molecular basis of drug addiction. (utexas.edu)
  • We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. (drugs-forum.com)
  • The ramp effect (or ramping effect) is a phenomenon involved in drug addiction whereby an addict develops a resistance to a substance, and thus requires increasingly large quantities of that substance to achieve the same effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug addiction is a serious risk with large recreational doses but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Insti
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse has said that an increase in prescription opioid abuse in the US has led to a corresponding increase in heroin use because heroin is a cheaper, readily available alternative. (vice.com)
  • Amphetamine
  • Tolerance is expected to develop with regular substituted amphetamine use. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamines
  • When substituted amphetamines are abused, drug tolerance develops rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cochrane Collaboration's reviews on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that while these drugs improve short-term symptoms, they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy
  • It is thought that improving ethA expression will increase the efficacy of ethionamide and prompting interest by drug developers in EthR inhibitors as a co-drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is rarely prescribed due to concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Acute tolerance refers to a process whereby the brain and central nervous system enact processes to immediately mitigate the effects of a given substance. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • The most common substances used as examples of this are nicotine - which not only creates acute tolerance but in some cases may increase tolerance throughout the day for some smokers - and hallucinogens like psilocybin mushrooms, LSD , Ecstasy, Philosopher's Stones, Peyote and others. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • Acute tolerance means that in most cases the effects of these drugs will be minimized by the reduction of receptor sites in the brain for each particular substance, and in some cases for certain classes of substances. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • Inverse tolerance can have a significant impact on subsequent relapses from recovery attempts, resulting in an increase in the severity and duration of symptoms related to withdrawal and post acute withdrawal. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • substance
  • Nerve cells, transmission processes, reuptake and receptor sites can be adjusted by the brain to become desensitized to the drugs, effectively producing an antidote to the substance or increasing the amount of receptor sites in order to diffuse the chemical across a wider spread of sites and thereby lessen its effects. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • doses
  • This reduces the effect of the drug and in general means that in order to achieve the same effects, addicts will need to increase their doses. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • alcohol
  • For example, heavy drinkers initially develop tolerance to alcohol (requiring them to drink larger amounts to achieve a similar effect) but excessive drinking can cause liver damage, which then puts them at risk of intoxication when drinking even very small amounts of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • David Nutt from the University of Bristol has suggested bretazenil as a possible base from which to make a better social drug, as it displays several of the positive effects of alcohol intoxication such as relaxation and sociability, but without the bad effects such as aggression, amnesia, nausea, loss of coordination, liver disease and brain damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • cocaine
  • People who consume a lot of drugs, like caffeine or cocaine, eventually build up a kind of tolerance, and they need more and more to get the same effect. (physicsforums.com)
  • Part of the problem with many drugs - including cocaine , meth and heroin , is that the brain cannot dispose of the drugs on its own. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • potent
  • While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • refractory
  • The bactericidal drugs isoniazid and rifampicin kill greater than 99% of exponentially growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) cells, but the remaining cells are persisters, cells with decreased metabolic rate, refractory to killing by these drugs, and able to generate drug-resistant mutants. (nih.gov)
  • refers
  • Inverse tolerance is effectively the same as the Kindling Effect , which refers to changes in the brain and central nervous system concerning the way chemicals are processed. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • interactions
  • In most cases the brain relies on the interactions between neurotransmitters and receptors, but drugs interrupt this process, leaving the brain helpless to respond. (recoveryfirst.org)
  • The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
  • prevents
  • We discovered that the combination of cysteine or other small thiols with either isoniazid or rifampicin prevents the formation of drug-tolerant and drug-resistant cells in Mtb cultures. (nih.gov)
  • A mutation that eliminates slowpoke expression prevents tolerance, while expression from an inducible slowpoke transgene mimics tolerance in naive animals. (utexas.edu)
  • demonstrate
  • In infected murine macrophages, the addition of N -acetylcysteine to isoniazid treatment potentiated the killing of Mtb Furthermore, we demonstrate that the addition of small thiols to Mtb drug treatment shifted the menaquinol/menaquinone balance toward a reduced state that stimulates Mtb respiration and converts persister cells to metabolically active cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, I demonstrate that in Drosophila, tolerance to the sedative effects of alcohols and anesthetics, is mediated by an increase in expression of the Ca2+ activated K+ channel gene, slowpoke. (utexas.edu)
  • effects
  • Increasing its dosage may re-amplify the drug's effects, however this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drug's effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrophysiological test of this hypothesis shows that increased slowpoke expression enhances the excitability of a neural pathway in a way that opposes the effects of sedative drugs. (utexas.edu)
  • However, tolerance developed to the anticonvulsant effects of bretazenil partial agonist more quickly than they developed to imidazenil. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Because of it's central role as a regulator of electrical activity in nerve terminals this channel gene is a likely contributor to the homeostatic mechanism that resists untoward changes in net cellular excitability and mediates tolerance to sedation. (utexas.edu)
  • substances
  • As methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • 1.0 mM).Combined treatment (Zn+DPA) showed a highly synergistic effect in KO cells as compared to single drug treatment (Fig. 5C). (nih.gov)
  • Much of drug rehabilitation consists of resisting and reversing the ramping effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diflunisal also has an antipyretic effect, but this is not a recommended use of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • In macaques, after BufferGel's effect on microflora and pH were measured by vaginal colposcopy and rectal lavage researchers determined that it fit the safety profile of a drug which could be tested on humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • A medical intervention that has for objective to increase tolerance (e.g., allergen immunotherapy, in which one is exposed to larger and larger amounts of allergen to decrease one's allergic reactions) is called drug desensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • users
  • How do drug users gain tolerance for a drug? (physicsforums.com)
  • In calling for decriminalization of minor drug offenses and increased social and health services for drug users, the 22 members of the Johns Hopkins-Lancet Commission on Public Health and International Drug Policy hope their 54-page report will encourage officials to undo some of that damage when the three-day session begins on April 19. (vice.com)
  • A phase I clinical trial done on women in India, Thailand gave supporting evidence that users tolerate the drug well. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Phase I trials have shown the drug to be well tolerated, with a small Phase II trial (double-blind, placebo-controlled, 130 patients for 2 years) in 2013 showing a reduced rate of disease progression and preserved quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multidrug tolerance is caused by a small subpopulation of microbial cells termed persisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast persisters are triggered in a small subset of unperturbed exponentially growing cells by spontaneously occurring DNA damage, which leads to the activation of a general stress response and protection against a range of harsh drug and stress environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • dosage
  • Pharmaceutical dextroamphetamine sulfate is available as both a brand name and generic drug in a variety of dosage forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1961
  • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Single Convention, adopted in 1961, consolidated those treaties and broadened their scope to include cannabis and drugs whose effects are similar to those of the drugs specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Canadian Senate committee report notes, "The work of consolidating the existing international drug control treaties into one instrument began in 1948, but it was 1961 before an acceptable third draft was ready. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levorphanol is listed under the Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs 1961 and is regulated like morphine in most countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • offenses
  • This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, MDMA, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of Federal prisoners serving time for drug offenses declined from 63% in 1997 to 55% in that same period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1986 and 1991, African-American women's incarceration in state prisons for drug offenses increased by 828 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments for insomnia
  • An extensive review of the medical literature regarding the management of insomnia and the elderly found that there is considerable evidence of the effectiveness and durability of non-drug treatments for insomnia in adults of all ages and that these interventions are underutilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Nitroglycerin-induced endothelial dysfunction and tolerance involve adverse phosphorylation and S-glutathionylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: beneficial effects of therapy with the AT1 receptor blocker telmisartan," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2223-2231, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The Dutch, British, and French system called the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis for assessing whether drugs should be included in drug formularies based on clinical efficacy, adverse effects, pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity, and drug interactions was used to assess lormetazepam. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Although no patient should be denied appropriate oxygen therapy for fear of toxicity, as with any drug, oxygen should be administered in doses and for durations no greater than necessary to achieve the desired therapeutic result. (anosiahuman.com)
  • tumor
  • Although medical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are accustomed to treat breast tumors, regular cells tolerance, development of metastases, and natural tumor resistance to radiation or chemotherapy can hinder an effective outcome. (biomasswars.com)
  • It was the first time the FDA had approved a cancer drug based on tumor genetics rather than tissue type or tumor site. (wikipedia.org)
  • single conve
  • That year, the UN Economic and Social Council convened a plenipotentiary conference of 73 nations for the adoption of a single convention on narcotic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cocaine
  • Heroin, cocaine and prescription painkillers are some of the most commonly abused drugs in America. (buyyoutube-views.com)
  • The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II, such as the International Opium Convention, and International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs (1925) specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine and opium, and its derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependency
  • Due to the fact that dependency is both psychological and physical in nature, it is crucial that clients go through psychotherapeutic treatment to resolve the concerns of cravings and changes that were made in the brain by chronic abuse of the drugs. (buyyoutube-views.com)
  • animal
  • it should not be administered to pregnant women because animal studies have shown that it can reduce tolerance to the fetus and increases the risk of miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • New animal drugs 556 Tolerances for residues of drugs in food animals The 600 series covers biological products (e.g. vaccines, blood): 601 Licensing under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act 606 et seq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food and Drug Admin
  • The group evaluated data collected by the Food and Drug Administration from 2003 to 2013. (wrvo.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has delayed the deadline for food companies to adopt a new Nutrition Facts label on food and beverage packages. (wrvo.org)
  • Title 21 is the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations that governs food and drugs within the United States for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is divided into three chapters: Chapter I - Food and Drug Administration Chapter II - Drug Enforcement Administration Chapter III - Office of National Drug Control Policy Most of the Chapter I regulations are based on the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • access-date= (help) Food and Drug Administration (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • People have also had colon inflammation, liver inflammation, kidney inflammation due to the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus possesses a p450 cytochrome system similar to that in humans, making it a potentially useful model for the study liver-mediated drug metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the World Health Organization were empowered to add, remove, and transfer drugs among the treaty's four schedules of controlled substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Involvement of the endothelial DDAH/ADMA pathway in nitroglycerin tolerance: the role of ALDH-2," Life Sciences , vol. 82, no. 13-14, pp. 699-707, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • The Controlled Substances Act follows the Single Convention's lead in granting a public health authority a central role in drug-scheduling decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • useful
  • If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. (drugs-forum.com)
  • A 2010 review of treatments for chronic hives found that doxepin had been superseded by better drugs but was still sometimes useful as a second line treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • As a result, most of the national drug statutes in the UNODC's legal library share a high degree of conformity with the Single Convention and its supplementary treaties, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • abuse
  • Call our drug abuse hotline to be connected with one of our rehabs or detox centers and start your new life today. (buyyoutube-views.com)
  • In the twenty-five years since the passage of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, the United States penal population rose from around 300,000 to more than two million. (wikipedia.org)
  • Office
  • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was delegated the Board's day-to-day work of monitoring the situation in each country and working with national authorities to ensure compliance with the Single Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • follows
  • The plot follows two drag queens played by Hugo Weaving and Guy Pearce and a transgender woman, played by Terence Stamp, as they journey across the Australian Outback from Sydney to Alice Springs in a tour bus that they have named "Priscilla", along the way encountering various groups and individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • laws
  • The 1200 series consists of rules primarily based in laws other than the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act: 1240 Rules promulgated under 361 of the Public Health Service Act on interstate control of communicable disease, such as: Requirements for pasteurization of milk Interstate shipment of turtles as pets. (wikipedia.org)
  • near
  • While this fungus is a mesophilic (preferring intermediate growth temperatures), it is able to grow between 6 °C (43 °F) and 45 °C (113 °F) although the rate of growth near the extremes of temperature tolerance is minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • focus
  • Canadian William B. McAllister, Q.C., notes that the participating states organized themselves into five distinct caucuses: Organic states group: As producers of the organic raw materials for most of the global drug supply, these countries had been the traditional focus of international drug control efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • federal
  • The 1100 series includes updated rules deeming items that statutorily come under the definition of "tobacco product" to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended by the Tobacco Control Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • original
  • Together, they fulfill a long-held dream of Adam's, which, in the original plan, is to climb King's Canyon in full drag regalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emulating the Reaper's mission of zero tolerance towards criminals and using his original costume and weapons, Chill Jr., in collaboration with his sister Marcia, attempts to lure Batman into a confrontation where they would finally dispose of the Dark Knight with a very different kind of weapon. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • DXO is an active metabolite of the pharmaceutical drug dextromethorphan (DXM), which, analogously to DXO, is an enantiomer of the racemic mixture racemethorphan along with levomethorphan, the latter of which has similar properties to those of levorphanol. (wikipedia.org)