• replication
  • Understanding the structural interactions of HIV assembly, maturation, replication and integration is critical to extending the current structural knowledge o the three major AIDS drug targets to an understanding of their mechanisms in the viral lifecycle. (grantome.com)
  • The NS5A protein plays an important role in viral RNA replication, viral assembly, and complex interactions with cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The HIV Resistance Database held at the Royal Free Hospital was searched for genotypes containing the H208Y mutation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In HIV, high level resistance is associated with the M184V/I mutation in the reverse transcriptase gene as reported by Raymond Schinazi's group at Emory University. (wikipedia.org)
  • A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the M184V mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multi-drug resistance: No longer relying on a glycoprotein cell wall Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics Decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics Altered target sites of antibiotic Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics Increased mutation rate as a stress response Many different bacteria now exhibit multi-drug resistance, including staphylococci, enterococci, gonococci, streptococci, salmonella, as well as numerous other gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • There is convincing evidence that HIV infection exacerbates the severity of viral hepatitis and the progression of liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • He defined the structure of viral chromatin during latent infection of neurons and the mechanisms by which viral DNA is kept silenced during latent infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status and represents the most significant viral cause of birth defects in industrialized countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with CMV is a major cause of disease and death in immunocompromised patients, including organ transplant recipients, patients undergoing hemodialysis, patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and HIV-infected patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs can reduce the severity of symptoms if taken soon after infection and can also be taken to decrease the risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Certain drugs are used prophylactically, that is they are used in uninfected individuals to guard against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are cellular signalling factors produced in response to viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV drugs do not cure HIV infection, but the treatment aims at improving the quality of patients´ lives and decreased mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25 antiretroviral drugs were available in 2009 for the treatment of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, the first drug for the treatment of HIV infection was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Didanosine became the second drug approved for the treatment of HIV infection in many other countries, including in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 9, 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2007, his HIV/AIDS research focuses on the natural history and molecular pathogenesis of acute HIV infection, particularly the immune responses to the virus, and viral evolution to evade the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • If bacteriophages undertake the lytic cycle of infection upon entering a bacterium, the virus will take control of the cell's machinery for use in replicating its own viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Recombinant viruses containing patient derived RT genes with and without H208Y were constructed to examine the impact of H208Y on drug susceptibility and viral fitness. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • and the viral latency-associated transcript promotes heterochromatin modifications on viral chromatin and silencing of lytic genes in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria are able to transfer copies of DNA that code for a mechanism of resistance to other bacteria even distantly related to them, which then are also able to pass on the resistance genes and so generations of antibiotics resistant bacteria are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction with viral vectors can be used to insert or modify genes in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protease
  • Using combinations of NRTIs was in practice prior to the second FDA approval and the triple drug combinations with dual NRTIs and a protease inhibitor (PI) were not far off by this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • He was one of the group of researchers who first demonstrated HIV drug resistance in 1989, and in 1997, his laboratory was also among the first to demonstrate HIV latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure (see figure 2) Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the Cytomegalovirus genus of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Our approach is significant both for the promise of new structural insights into the interdependence of viral mechanisms, but also for the direct potential for new drug design methodologies and therapeutic strategies. (grantome.com)
  • occur
  • And is there a correlation between someone like myself and my VL levels and the likelihood that resistance will occur? (thebody.com)
  • This is because viral transmission can preferentially occur between hosts sharing any of these attributes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • We will focus on interactions of the major HIV enzymes with their partners and effectors since they encompass key processes in the viral life cycle and as existing drug targets provide a rich base of structural, biological and evolutionary data that will serve to infom our goals. (grantome.com)
  • We will study the mechanistic implications of viral macromolecular interactions and dynamics and its broader impacts of the evolution of drug resistance. (grantome.com)
  • zalcitabine
  • Zalcitabine was the third antiretroviral to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamivudine (3TC) significantly inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of zalcitabine to the active form, and accordingly the drugs should not be administered together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, zalcitabine should not be used with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy, such as didanosine and stavudine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to zalcitabine develops infrequently compared with other nRTIs, and generally only occurs at a low level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration with drugs with overlapping toxicity, such as zalcitabine and stavudine, is not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-HIV drug
  • There is evidence that stopping anti-HIV therapy will not make the virus resistant to efavirenz (EFV), an anti-HIV drug that remains in the body longer than most treatment drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Its FDA approval helped bring down the price of zidovudine (AZT), the initial anti-HIV drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • regimen
  • After 14 months without complete suppression, I would have favored either another perhaps more potent regimen - or intensification of your current regimen (assuming that you still have no drug resistance ). (thebody.com)
  • Then, by adding another drug, you often do not still succeed since you are in essence adding one drug to a "failing" regimen. (thebody.com)
  • I would talk to your doctor about the possibility of receiving a more potent regimen or obtaining a drug resistance test to help guide him/her in the selection of a better treatment regimen. (thebody.com)
  • Based on these test results and the patient's prior medication history, a drug regimen tailored to the individual patient will be prescribed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evolution
  • We will explore resistance evolution in HIV as an opportune platform upon which to characterize the dynamic relationships between interacting macromolecular structures at the atomic level. (grantome.com)
  • prevalence
  • The prevalence of H208Y in antiretroviral treatment naïve and treatment experienced patients was 5/3783 (0.1%) and 12/1304 (0.9%), respectively, indicating a high degree of conservation of position 208 in wild type virus and an increase in prevalence under selective drug pressure. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • virus
  • TDM involves analyzing the virus, giving drugs the virus is most sensitive to, monitoring drug blood levels to make sure there is enough drug to work against the virus, and changing the drug dose if it is too low. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants will have blood drawn to learn what anti-HIV drugs the patient's virus is resistant to-that is, what drugs are no longer effective against the virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The viral load will also be measured and additional tests to determine whether the resistance pattern of the patients' virus has changed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out if anti-HIV drugs can be stopped without the virus becoming resistant to the drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The relative lengths of internal versus external branches will be affected by changes in viral population size over time (see figure 1) Rapid expansion of a virus in a population will be reflected by a "star-like" tree, in which external branches are long relative to internal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a phylogeny of an expanding virus, a phylogeny of a viral population that stays constant in size will have external branches that are shorter relative to branches on the interior of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogeny of hepatitis B virus (caricatured by figure 1B) instead reflects a viral population that has remained roughly constant in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • load
  • Well, I share your physicians desire to see your viral load less than 50, and while numbers like 60, 83 and 155 are more acceptable, I am less than thrilled with 746 and 1,012. (thebody.com)
  • Viral Load Is Not Going D own. (thebody.com)
  • Why isn't my Viral load going down or CD4 increasing still after such long period of medication? (thebody.com)
  • Many people who start on 2 drugs and continue on only 2 drugs for a period of time do develop some degree of drug resistance since generally, two drugs are not sufficient to reduce the viral load to undetectable. (thebody.com)
  • cell
  • These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • Transmission of drug-resistant pathogens presents an almost-universal challenge for fighting infectious diseases. (uzh.ch)
  • Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively drug resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Various microorganisms have survived for thousands of years by their ability to adapt to antimicrobial agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeasts such as Candida species can become resistant under long term treatment with azole preparations, requiring treatment with a different drug class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii can also become resistant to artemisinin, as well as atovaquone and sulfadiazine, but is not usually MDR Antihelminthic resistance is mainly reported in the veterinary literature, for example in connection with the practice of livestock drenching and has been recent focus of FDA regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduces
  • Food substantially reduces didanosine bioavailability, and the drug should be administered on an empty stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • This study will evaluate a new treatment strategy called therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in HIV-infected children and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first NRTI was zidovudine, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987, which was the first step towards treatment of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COLATE study has suggested that there is no benefit to continuing lamivudine treatment in patients with lamivudine resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Russia and China a drug called arbidol is also used as a treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing of the drug has predominantly occurred in these countries and, although no clinical trials have been published demonstrating this is an effective drug, some data suggest that this could be a useful treatment for influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • He serves on the Vaccine Research Committee of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and IAS-USA expert panel responsible for publishing international HIV treatment and drug resistance testing guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential
  • In this process HIV-1 integrase is essential and therefore a very promising target for anti-AIDS drug design. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • This work reviews the genetic processes behind drug resistance. (hvivo.com)
  • Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viral phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread, spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics, zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism, and antigenic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • In February 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued a statement that patients using Didanosine (Videx) are at risk for a rare but potentially fatal liver disorder, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • citation needed] See Prospects for universal flu vaccines The US government on May 4, 2006 awarded five-year contracts for "more than $1 billion to five drug manufacturers developing technology for speedier mass production of vaccines in the event of a pandemic" from the $3.8 billion pandemic preparedness bill passed in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • Peramivir, an experimental anti-influenza drug, developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals has not yet been approved for sale in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • This drug can be given as an injection, so may be particularly useful in serious cases of influenza where the patient is unconscious and oral or inhaled drug administration is therefore difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Drug levels will be measured periodically throughout the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will also examine how fast anti-HIV drugs leave the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The fact that there were relatively few virologic failures in that study provides indirect but strong evidence that simultaneous discontinuation of EFV, ZDV, and 3TC is unlikely to be associated with emergence of EFV resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Throughout the study, patients will have blood drawn on specified days for plasma EFV assays, intracellular NRTI-TP assays, and demonstration of EFV resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • host
  • Similarly, trees reconstructed from viral sequences isolated from chronically infected individuals can be used to gauge changes in viral population sizes within a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • INSTIs restrain the binding of pre-integration complex (PIC) and host DNA and INBIs restrain integrase and viral DNA binding. (wikipedia.org)