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  • genetic
  • This work reviews the genetic processes behind drug resistance. (hvivo.com)
  • This is determined by analyzing the virus's genotype (detailed genetic structure) and phenotype (response to exposure to anti-viral drugs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread, spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics, zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism, and antigenic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their study showcased three features of viral phylogenies, which may serve as rules of thumb for identifying important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes influencing patterns of viral genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, non-infections viral particles are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • A study across southern Africa following more than 2,700 people with HIV showed that before their treatment even began, more than 5 percent had viruses that were resistant to at least one of the first line of drugs used to treat HIV, necessitating a switch to a second, less accessible and more expensive treatment. (thebodypro.com)
  • While the study found that nearly 14 percent of the patients followed had HIV with drug-resistant mutations, genotyping of the viruses indicated that the drug-resistant strain had been transmitted in 5.5 percent of all cases. (thebodypro.com)
  • The authors, led by T. Sonia Boender of Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development, conclude that pretreatment resistance threatens sustainable HIV treatment success and highlights the need for improved access to tests to monitor treatment effectiveness and to affordable treatments for viruses not effectively treated with first-line medicines. (thebodypro.com)
  • Recombinant viruses containing patient derived RT genes with and without H208Y were constructed to examine the impact of H208Y on drug susceptibility and viral fitness. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • While the prevalence of X4-tropic viruses in subtype B is relatively well studied the distribution of tropism in CRF06_cpx (causing Estonian epidemic) is less known, especially in the treatment experienced patients with established multidrug-resistance and who are candidates for therapy with CCR5 antagonist. (springer.com)
  • Of 11 viruses 10 had resistance against two ARV classes (NRTI + NNRTI or NNRTI + INI) and 1 had triple class resistance (NRTI + NNRTI + PI). (springer.com)
  • Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure (see figure 2) Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the Cytomegalovirus genus of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiviral drugs directly target the viruses responsible for influenza infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety). (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance mutations are found and become problematic in many viruses other than HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • He defined the structure of viral chromatin during latent infection of neurons and the mechanisms by which viral DNA is kept silenced during latent infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status and represents the most significant viral cause of birth defects in industrialized countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with CMV is a major cause of disease and death in immunocompromised patients, including organ transplant recipients, patients undergoing hemodialysis, patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and HIV-infected patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs can reduce the severity of symptoms if taken soon after infection and can also be taken to decrease the risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Certain drugs are used prophylactically, that is they are used in uninfected individuals to guard against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are cellular signalling factors produced in response to viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV drugs do not cure HIV infection, but the treatment aims at improving the quality of patients´ lives and decreased mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25 antiretroviral drugs were available in 2009 for the treatment of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, the first drug for the treatment of HIV infection was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Didanosine became the second drug approved for the treatment of HIV infection in many other countries, including in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 9, 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • If bacteriophages undertake the lytic cycle of infection upon entering a bacterium, the virus will take control of the cell's machinery for use in replicating its own viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2007, his HIV/AIDS research focuses on the natural history and molecular pathogenesis of acute HIV infection, particularly the immune responses to the virus, and viral evolution to evade the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are five classes of drug that are used to treat HIV infection, and resistance mutations can effect the efficacy of these treatments as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes simpl
  • Herpes simplex virus rarely becomes resistant to acyclovir preparations, mostly in the form of cross-resistance to famciclovir and valacyclovir, usually in immunosuppressed patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections
  • Allicin has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as viral and fungal infections in vitro, but as of 2016, the safety and efficacy of allicin to treat infections in people was unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug can trigger an inflammatory response to opportunistic infections (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scedosporium prolificans infections are almost uniformly fatal because of their resistance to multiple antifungal agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • integrase
  • The first integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, was approved in 2007 and other drugs were in clinical trials in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process HIV-1 integrase is essential and therefore a very promising target for anti-AIDS drug design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective drug design is a possibility as HIV-1 integrase has no known cellular equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • INSTIs restrain the binding of pre-integration complex (PIC) and host DNA and INBIs restrain integrase and viral DNA binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • load
  • Your last viral load was 119. (thebody.com)
  • Remember that a significant change in viral load is a 0.5 log or greater change, i.e. a greater than 3-fold change from the previous value. (thebody.com)
  • I would suggest that you talk to your physician and express your concern about your viral load. (thebody.com)
  • Well, I share your physicians desire to see your viral load less than 50, and while numbers like 60, 83 and 155 are more acceptable, I am less than thrilled with 746 and 1,012. (thebody.com)
  • The findings, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases , underscore needs for greater access in Africa to testing to monitor patients' viral load as a measure of treatment effectiveness, and to more affordable second-line HIV treatments, authors noted. (thebodypro.com)
  • he never talks about how he got it, why he never told me, but I took over his giving him the tablets on a certain time every day, his meals have gone to extremely healthy and his last test a month ago has reflected his viral load is non existant. (thebodypro.com)
  • Viral Load Is Not Going D own. (thebody.com)
  • Why isn't my Viral load going down or CD4 increasing still after such long period of medication? (thebody.com)
  • The viral load will also be measured and additional tests to determine whether the resistance pattern of the patients' virus has changed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Everyone had a preswitch genotype and at least 1 postswitch viral load measure. (natap.org)
  • Median time since last viral load above 50 copies stood at 3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1 to 6). (natap.org)
  • occur
  • And is there a correlation between someone like myself and my VL levels and the likelihood that resistance will occur? (thebody.com)
  • This is because viral transmission can preferentially occur between hosts sharing any of these attributes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance mutations can occur through several mechanisms from single nucleotide substitutions to combinations of amino acid substitutions, deletions and insertions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Our approach is significant both for the promise of new structural insights into the interdependence of viral mechanisms, but also for the direct potential for new drug design methodologies and therapeutic strategies. (grantome.com)
  • prevalence
  • The prevalence of H208Y in antiretroviral treatment naïve and treatment experienced patients was 5/3783 (0.1%) and 12/1304 (0.9%), respectively, indicating a high degree of conservation of position 208 in wild type virus and an increase in prevalence under selective drug pressure. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • copies
  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria are able to transfer copies of DNA that code for a mechanism of resistance to other bacteria even distantly related to them, which then are also able to pass on the resistance genes and so generations of antibiotics resistant bacteria are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Secondly it has ribonuclease H (Rnase H) activity as it degrades the RNA strand of RNA-DNA intermediate that forms during viral DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA into a viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, the mistake will lead to generalized transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • He was one of the group of researchers who first demonstrated HIV drug resistance in 1989, and in 1997, his laboratory was also among the first to demonstrate HIV latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • We will focus on interactions of the major HIV enzymes with their partners and effectors since they encompass key processes in the viral life cycle and as existing drug targets provide a rich base of structural, biological and evolutionary data that will serve to infom our goals. (grantome.com)
  • We will study the mechanistic implications of viral macromolecular interactions and dynamics and its broader impacts of the evolution of drug resistance. (grantome.com)
  • lamivudine
  • The COLATE study has suggested that there is no benefit to continuing lamivudine treatment in patients with lamivudine resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hepatitis B, lamivudine resistance was first described in the YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate) locus of the HBV reverse transcriptase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamivudine (3TC) significantly inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of zalcitabine to the active form, and accordingly the drugs should not be administered together. (wikipedia.org)
  • regimens
  • Therefore, it is important to collect data on subtype C protease and gag sequences from patients as these mutations may affect the efficacy of protease inhibitor (PI) containing drug regimens. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • As 2-drug regimens gain popularity, clinicians need tools to help them predict which combinations will work best for which people. (natap.org)
  • Such tools would prove especially useful when picking a 2-drug medley for someone who has already taken 1 or more failing regimens and could have circulating or archived HIV resistant to individual antiretrovirals or entire antiretroviral classes. (natap.org)
  • Other antiretroviral drugs in the patients' regimens may be continued for up to three days after the last EFV dose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • zalcitabine
  • Zalcitabine was the third antiretroviral to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, zalcitabine should not be used with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy, such as didanosine and stavudine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to zalcitabine develops infrequently compared with other nRTIs, and generally only occurs at a low level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration with drugs with overlapping toxicity, such as zalcitabine and stavudine, is not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • These findings emphasize the need for further investigation of gag mutations and their contribution to the evolution of HIV resistance to PIs. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • We will explore resistance evolution in HIV as an opportune platform upon which to characterize the dynamic relationships between interacting macromolecular structures at the atomic level. (grantome.com)
  • resistant
  • In addition, because genotyping that led to classifying drug resistance as pretreatment relied on identifying known mutations, it is possible that more of the patients followed had strains of virus that were resistant before treatment but had not been identified. (thebodypro.com)
  • Transmission of drug-resistant pathogens presents an almost-universal challenge for fighting infectious diseases. (uzh.ch)
  • Participants will have blood drawn to learn what anti-HIV drugs the patient's virus is resistant to-that is, what drugs are no longer effective against the virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out if anti-HIV drugs can be stopped without the virus becoming resistant to the drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is evidence that stopping anti-HIV therapy will not make the virus resistant to efavirenz (EFV), an anti-HIV drug that remains in the body longer than most treatment drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively drug resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Various microorganisms have survived for thousands of years by their ability to adapt to antimicrobial agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeasts such as Candida species can become resistant under long term treatment with azole preparations, requiring treatment with a different drug class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii can also become resistant to artemisinin, as well as atovaquone and sulfadiazine, but is not usually MDR Antihelminthic resistance is mainly reported in the veterinary literature, for example in connection with the practice of livestock drenching and has been recent focus of FDA regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • A multiple cycle drug susceptibility assay showed that H208Y conferred a reduced susceptibility to the nucleotide RT inhibitor tenofovir in the context of subtype B wild type RT and subtype B RT containing TAMs. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In the context of subtype B wild type RT, H208Y conferred a reduced viral fitness both in the presence and absence of drug. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, H208Y did not appear to impact on viral fitness in the context of subtype B and subtype A RT containing TAMs. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The role of the protease cleavage sites in viral fitness and drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype C. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In this study, 30 subtype-C infected second-line failures were genotyped using the ViroSeqTM resistance genotyping kit and the gag region from these isolates were then characterised. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • virus
  • TDM involves analyzing the virus, giving drugs the virus is most sensitive to, monitoring drug blood levels to make sure there is enough drug to work against the virus, and changing the drug dose if it is too low. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The relative lengths of internal versus external branches will be affected by changes in viral population size over time (see figure 1) Rapid expansion of a virus in a population will be reflected by a "star-like" tree, in which external branches are long relative to internal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a phylogeny of an expanding virus, a phylogeny of a viral population that stays constant in size will have external branches that are shorter relative to branches on the interior of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogeny of hepatitis B virus (caricatured by figure 1B) instead reflects a viral population that has remained roughly constant in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly encountered resistance mutations are M204V/I/S. The change in amino acid sequence from YMDD to YIDD results in a 3.2 fold reduction in the error rate of the reverse transcriptase, which correlates with a significant growth disadvantage of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to both classes of drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also block the fusion of the viral and cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient
  • This drug can be given as an injection, so may be particularly useful in serious cases of influenza where the patient is unconscious and oral or inhaled drug administration is therefore difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • If not enough of the drug is found in the blood, the dose of the drug will be increased and the amount of the drug in the blood will be checked again. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • NRTI
  • Throughout the study, patients will have blood drawn on specified days for plasma EFV assays, intracellular NRTI-TP assays, and demonstration of EFV resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first NRTI was zidovudine, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987, which was the first step towards treatment of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • This study will evaluate a new treatment strategy called therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in HIV-infected children and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In Russia and China a drug called arbidol is also used as a treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing of the drug has predominantly occurred in these countries and, although no clinical trials have been published demonstrating this is an effective drug, some data suggest that this could be a useful treatment for influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • He serves on the Vaccine Research Committee of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and IAS-USA expert panel responsible for publishing international HIV treatment and drug resistance testing guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • His wide-ranging research in the HIV field has encompassed resistance, viral pathogenicity and host immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, lentiviruses such as HIV have evolved the Viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein in order to counteract this effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • load
  • The purpose of this study is to see if PEG-Intron is safe and tolerated when given to children, to see how much gets into the blood and how long it stays in the blood, and to see how well it works to reduce viral load (level of HIV in the blood). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Additionally the kinetics of viral load response to adefovir will be assessed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will be followed for HBV viral load response to adefovir for 48 weeks with possible extension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary study endpoints will be HBV viral load at week 24 (per-protocol patients) and DAVG at week 24 (intent-to-treat patients). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phase
  • After Week 96, participants will continue to take their blinded study drug and attend visits until treatment assignments are unblinded, at which point they will be given the option to participate in an open-label EVG extension phase of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • adults
  • PEG-Intron has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hepatitis C in adults, but in this study, it is being used as an investigational agent for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • strain
  • The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level, making it more difficult to find a target for an antifungal drug to attack that does not also exist in the infected organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Monthly visits beyond week 48 - Based on the HBV response to treatment and the availability of the drug from the sponsor, patients may be offered to extend their treatment with adefovir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • response
  • Reverset) produced a novel deletion of AGT at codon 68 (S68 Delta) alone and in combination with K65R that differentially affects drug response. (diva-portal.org)
  • laboratory
  • He was one of the group of researchers who first demonstrated HIV drug resistance in 1989, and in 1997, his laboratory was also among the first to demonstrate HIV latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • season 1, guest season 2) Jack Kesy as Gabriel Bolivar/The Master, a philandering rock star with an appetite for recreational drugs and is one of the Master's vampire acolytes before becoming the Master's host body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • Their marriage started to fall apart however, thanks to resistance from Nikki who believed that Carly was up to something. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this has been discounted because human APOBEC3G reduces viral cDNA levels independently of DNA repair enzymes UNG and SMUG1. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • Richman has worked primarily in the HIV field over the past twenty years, with major contributions in the areas of resistance and pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • We treated pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 with AduPARE1A and gemcitabine individually or in combination and analyzed cell viability, combination index, apoptosis and viral production. (biomedcentral.com)