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  • surface drainage
  • Measures such as the construction of retention ponds and the establishment of riparian border strips can be taken to reduce the direct inflow of polluted surface drainage water into the receiving system. (fao.org)
  • alter the drainage
  • Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • It holds that since surface water is a "common enemy" to landowners, each landowner has the right to alter the drainage pattern of his land (for example by building dikes or drainage channels) without regard for the effects on neighboring parcels, as long as that water flows to where it otherwise would have naturally flowed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It holds that the owner of a lower parcel of land must accept the natural drainage from those parcels above his, and cannot alter the drainage pattern of his own land to increase the drainage flow onto parcels lower than his own. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, under the Restatement of Torts, the test was: Was there reasonable necessity for the property owner to alter the drainage to make use of their land? (wikipedia.org)
  • dikes
  • The Netherlands has long been divided into approximately 35 waterschappen, local authorities responsible for water quality and management, including dikes and drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sewers
  • They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • and, the Hidalgo County drainage system. (google.com)
  • These monies will improve the County's drainage system, move storm water runoff out for the County faster, and by doing so these improvements can help protect the safety of our communities and over $35 billion in property assets. (google.com)
  • This system was invented by the American Henry French, author of Farm Drainage, who lived from 1813 to 1885. (ehow.com)
  • Is there any way to create a drainage system? (sfgate.com)
  • Although lack of a proper drainage system is the likely source of your problem, there are other potential causes. (sfgate.com)
  • Summary: The Ombudsman will not investigate Miss C's complaint that the Council's failure to maintain a surface water drainage system contributed to flooding which caused significant damage to her property. (lgo.org.uk)
  • Where dilution is not possible, special arrangements should be made to flush and transport this acid drainage water from the system. (fao.org)
  • In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively,the prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE called SmartDitch, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more closely mimic the natural flow of water in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drainage system (agriculture), an intervention to control waterlogging aiming at soil improvement for agricultural production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drainage system in urban and industrial areas, a facility to dispose of liquid waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of Illinois established a system of drainage districts in 1871. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage research is the study of agricultural drainage systems and their effects to arrive at optimal system design. (wikipedia.org)
  • the relation between drainage system design and depth of water table is mainly physical and can be described by drainage equations, in which the drainage requirements are to be found from a water balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a tile drainage system, a sort of "plumbing" is installed below the surface of agricultural fields, effectively consisting of a network of below-ground pipes that allow subsurface water to move out from between soil particles and into the tile line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drainage and navigation system has been significantly modified twice in the last couple of centuries to increase the reliability of farmland. (wikipedia.org)
  • districts
  • The land drainage responsibilities of the boards and districts are limited to works on main rivers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage districts occur in England and Wales, varying in size from a few hundred acres to over 100,000 acres (400 km2), all in low-lying areas of the country where flood risk management and land drainage are sensitive issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special drainage districts could be created for the built-up parts of rural area in England, under the provisions of the Sewage Utilization Act 1865, Sewage Utilization Act 1867, Sanitary Act 1866 and Public Health Act 1872. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage districts, run by drainage commissions, are able to levy property taxes to pay for the construction and maintenance drainage systems for the district. (wikipedia.org)
  • this plan combined a number of local drainage districts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of Texas authorized the formation of drainage districts in 1905. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a/records.aspx?cat=046-cp_1&cid=28-2-10-1#28-2-10-1 Drainage Districts, Illinois State Archives, 2014 Article VI, State Constitution of 1974, Louisiana. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitate
  • Mitigation to facilitate the disposal of drainage to surface waters should preferably start at the field level. (fao.org)
  • Less polluted or even fresh water from upstream storage can sometimes be used for dilution and flushing, so as to facilitate safe drainage discharge into streams and lakes. (fao.org)
  • Both systems can facilitate the reuse of drainage water (e.g. for irrigation), but wells offer more flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pipe
  • Pipe layouts are configured in patterns that suit the drainage needs, with common patterns being grid iron, herringbone and fan. (ehow.com)
  • A drainage pipe is placed at the bottom, and the trench is back-filled with gravel. (sfgate.com)
  • Water flowing toward the house seeps down through the gravel into the drainage pipe and out to the street. (sfgate.com)
  • The invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple, who died in 1753. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tile drainage got its name from tiles made from fired clay (ceramic), similar to terracotta pipes but not necessarily in a pipe shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • tunnel
  • A drainage tunnel is a tunnel dug under some region requiring drainage, either from lower elevation or from a location where a pumping station can be economically run. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest of these is the Hong Kong West Drainage Tunnel, comprising an 11-kilometre long main tunnel and 8 km of adits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lai Chi Kok Drainage Tunnel encircles Sham Shui Po and Lai Chi Kok. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tsuen Wan Drainage Tunnel protects the Tsuen Wan New Town and Kwai Chung areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Water must move laterally for drainage. (ibiblio.org)
  • Depending on how much of the subsoil needs water drainage, dig trenches of varying depths, fill the bottoms with gravel or rubble and install pipes within the rubble to more freely conduct moisture to an outflow. (ehow.com)
  • Subsoil drainage systems can require the expertise of a trained professional with experience in water table levels, slope of the land, subsoil analysis and local building regulations. (ehow.com)
  • Drainage water quality may vary within a catchment. (fao.org)
  • This may adversely affect the quality of agricultural drainage water, and limit its potential for reuse. (fao.org)
  • Downstream beneficial uses of any surface water body to which drainage water is added must be protected. (fao.org)
  • For example, it may not be appropriate to discharge saline drainage water into a river or lake when that surface water body is being used for domestic or agricultural water supplies. (fao.org)
  • In many cases, it may be possible and fully acceptable to discharge drainage water into a large freshwater body. (fao.org)
  • However, it will be necessary to determine the assimilative capacity of the receiving water and identify the constituents in the drainage water to determine the 'safe level' or discharge requirements for the drainage water. (fao.org)
  • The discharge requirements should specify the maximum allowable concentration of each constituent of concern and the volume of drainage water discharge that will be acceptable. (fao.org)
  • In some cases, there will be a significant difference between the quality of the drainage water and that of the receiving water, while in other cases, there will be little difference between the two. (fao.org)
  • The discharge of drainage water of a higher quality than the receiving water is generally acceptable. (fao.org)
  • Pollutants in the drainage water may end up in the channel bed material. (fao.org)
  • The pH of this drainage water can be as low as three or four. (fao.org)
  • However, it is still essential that the quality of both the drainage water and the river water be evaluated to determine the safe level of constituents that can be placed in the river without affecting downstream beneficial uses. (fao.org)
  • In addition, the introduction of saline drainage water into a salt-water environment generally reduces the impact of the discharge of the drainage water on the receiving water. (fao.org)
  • However, each receiving water needs to be analysed and compared with the drainage effluent in order to protect beneficial uses of the receiving water. (fao.org)
  • Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area. (wikipedia.org)
  • All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the monitoring by Seattle Public Utilities, they report a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage project Drainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage options for the construction industry include: Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies (points). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage criteria One would not want the water table to be too shallow to avoid crop yield depression nor too deep to avoid drought conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISBN 90-70754-33-9 Data provided by various authors on banana, cotton, sugarcane and wheat response to shallow water tables Drainage research in farmers' fields: analysis of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the drainage gradient is too low, rain and melt water drainage will be insufficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage law is a specific area of water law related to drainage of surface water on real property. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discussion of Connecticut surface water law from the Connecticut State Law Library Section 400 of the Hydrologic Criteria and Drainage Design Manual from the Clark County Regional Flood Control District, which provides an extensive discussion of drainage law in Nevada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas irrigation is the practice of adding additional water when the soil is naturally too dry, drainage brings soil moisture levels down for optimal crop growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • A valley floor divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor drainage divide Waters part, but eventually rejoin at a river confluence (for example: the Mississippi and Missouri divides) A valley-floor divide occurs on the bottom of a valley and arises as a result of subsequent depositions, such as scree, in a valley through which a river originally flowed continuously. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • drainage pattern The spatial relationship between individual stream courses in an area. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Install subsoil drainage systems to conduct moisture away from a given area. (ehow.com)
  • In marsh deltas such as the Okavango, the largest drainage area on earth, or in large lakes areas, such as the Finnish Lakeland, it is difficult to find a meaningful definition of a watershed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise the pavement will get an area with too little drainage gradient ( (wikipedia.org)
  • Each drainage district has a defined area, and the IDB only has powers to deal with matters affecting that area. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Subsoil drainage systems are best installed when the structure or landscaping feature is being installed. (ehow.com)
  • These are private drainage systems and as such, the responsibility for them falls entirely on the householder. (medway.gov.uk)
  • Both Cato and Pliny have described tile drainage systems, in 200 BC and the first century AD, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • install
  • Calculate your drainage install on-site. (ndspro.com)
  • After much thought I have finally started to install drainage. (ibiblio.org)
  • While there were some minor administrative failings, the Council has no liability to take action to install drainage on the road and, as it has now agreed to carry out some works as a goodwill gesture to help Mr A, we will not pursue the complaint any further. (lgo.org.uk)
  • parcel
  • Application of the civil law rule in its purest form would inhibit the development of land, since virtually every improvement on a parcel would alter the natural drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It allows a landowner to make "reasonable" alteration to the drainage pattern of his parcel, with liability only occurring when the alteration causes "unreasonable" harm toward neighboring parcels. (wikipedia.org)
  • landowner
  • Because the reasonable use rule presents a subjective standard, courts will often employ a balancing test to determine whether a landowner is liable to his neighbors for his alteration of drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • pipes
  • Such geotextiles can also cover perforated drainage pipes to prevent silt and other particulates from clogging the interior of the pipes. (ehow.com)