• drain
  • Since a drainage system involves all of these components, it is usually referred to as the DWV: the drain-waste-vent system. (howstuffworks.com)
  • He did a digital rectal exam and with digital pressure he was able to drain purulent material so he went in through the opening and placed a Malecot catheter for drainage. (aapc.com)
  • Drainage provides favorable condition for root growth, enhance organic matter decomposition, reduce salinity level above the drain, and maintain productivity of the land. (springer.com)
  • The knowledge of drain material (drainage conveyance conduit) and placement technique of the drain (including selection of envelop material and its design with respect to soil bedding) are also of great importance. (springer.com)
  • Lalonde V, Madramootoo CA, Trenholm L, Broughton RS (1996) Effects of controlled drainage on nitrate concentrations in subsurface drain discharge. (springer.com)
  • New drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of these materials has become increasingly more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate which is invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain and concrete liners. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well known steady-state drainage equation is the Hooghoudt drain spacing equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most road design manuals require drainage gradient to exceed 0.5%, in order to drain water and prevent excessive skid accidents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage tunnels have frequently been constructed to drain mining districts or to serve drainage districts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the state of Michigan, drainage law is so important that counties elect a drain commissioner to oversee water resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • alter the drainage
  • Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • It holds that since surface water is a "common enemy" to landowners, each landowner has the right to alter the drainage pattern of his land (for example by building dikes or drainage channels) without regard for the effects on neighboring parcels, as long as that water flows to where it otherwise would have naturally flowed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It holds that the owner of a lower parcel of land must accept the natural drainage from those parcels above his, and cannot alter the drainage pattern of his own land to increase the drainage flow onto parcels lower than his own. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, under the Restatement of Torts, the test was: Was there reasonable necessity for the property owner to alter the drainage to make use of their land? (wikipedia.org)
  • groundwater
  • With a groundwater model that includes the possibility to introduce wells, one can study the impact of a well drainage system on the hydrology of the project area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • This system was invented by the American Henry French, author of Farm Drainage, who lived from 1813 to 1885. (ehow.com)
  • Summary: The Ombudsman will not investigate Miss C's complaint that the Council's failure to maintain a surface water drainage system contributed to flooding which caused significant damage to her property. (lgo.org.uk)
  • Measures such as the construction of retention ponds and the establishment of riparian border strips can be taken to reduce the direct inflow of polluted surface drainage water into the receiving system. (fao.org)
  • Where dilution is not possible, special arrangements should be made to flush and transport this acid drainage water from the system. (fao.org)
  • Traps are vital components of the drainage system. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Judgment of alternate design options, and, monitoring and evaluation of the system after installation are demanded for successful outcome from the drainage projects. (springer.com)
  • Ayars JE, Grismer ME, Guitjems JC (1997) Water quality as design criteria in drainage water management system. (springer.com)
  • Doty CW, Parsons JE (1979) Water requirements and water table variations for a controlled and reversible drainage system. (springer.com)
  • In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively,the prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE called SmartDitch, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more closely mimic the natural flow of water in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage system may refer to: A drainage system (geomorphology), the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drainage system (agriculture), an intervention to control waterlogging aiming at soil improvement for agricultural production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drainage system in urban and industrial areas, a facility to dispose of liquid waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of Illinois established a system of drainage districts in 1871. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage research is the study of agricultural drainage systems and their effects to arrive at optimal system design. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a tile drainage system, a sort of "plumbing" is installed below the surface of agricultural fields, effectively consisting of a network of below-ground pipes that allow subsurface water to move out from between soil particles and into the tile line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drainage and navigation system has been significantly modified twice in the last couple of centuries to increase the reliability of farmland. (wikipedia.org)
  • ILRI
  • On line : ILRI, 1999, Drainage and Hydrology/Salinity: Water and salt balances, 29 pp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lecture notes of the International Course on Land Drainage (ICLD), International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • dikes
  • The Netherlands has long been divided into approximately 35 waterschappen, local authorities responsible for water quality and management, including dikes and drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sewers
  • They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphatic
  • Manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), sometimes called manual lymphatic therapy, uses light touch to move excess lymph and fluid out of the tissues and back into the lymphatic vessels. (breastcancer.org)
  • water
  • Water must move laterally for drainage. (ibiblio.org)
  • Depending on how much of the subsoil needs water drainage, dig trenches of varying depths, fill the bottoms with gravel or rubble and install pipes within the rubble to more freely conduct moisture to an outflow. (ehow.com)
  • Subsoil drainage systems can require the expertise of a trained professional with experience in water table levels, slope of the land, subsoil analysis and local building regulations. (ehow.com)
  • Drainage water quality may vary within a catchment. (fao.org)
  • This may adversely affect the quality of agricultural drainage water, and limit its potential for reuse. (fao.org)
  • Downstream beneficial uses of any surface water body to which drainage water is added must be protected. (fao.org)
  • For example, it may not be appropriate to discharge saline drainage water into a river or lake when that surface water body is being used for domestic or agricultural water supplies. (fao.org)
  • In many cases, it may be possible and fully acceptable to discharge drainage water into a large freshwater body. (fao.org)
  • However, it will be necessary to determine the assimilative capacity of the receiving water and identify the constituents in the drainage water to determine the 'safe level' or discharge requirements for the drainage water. (fao.org)
  • The discharge requirements should specify the maximum allowable concentration of each constituent of concern and the volume of drainage water discharge that will be acceptable. (fao.org)
  • In some cases, there will be a significant difference between the quality of the drainage water and that of the receiving water, while in other cases, there will be little difference between the two. (fao.org)
  • The discharge of drainage water of a higher quality than the receiving water is generally acceptable. (fao.org)
  • Pollutants in the drainage water may end up in the channel bed material. (fao.org)
  • Less polluted or even fresh water from upstream storage can sometimes be used for dilution and flushing, so as to facilitate safe drainage discharge into streams and lakes. (fao.org)
  • The pH of this drainage water can be as low as three or four. (fao.org)
  • However, it is still essential that the quality of both the drainage water and the river water be evaluated to determine the safe level of constituents that can be placed in the river without affecting downstream beneficial uses. (fao.org)
  • In addition, the introduction of saline drainage water into a salt-water environment generally reduces the impact of the discharge of the drainage water on the receiving water. (fao.org)
  • For successful drainage design, the complex interaction of water, soil and crop in relation to quality of water must be well understood beforehand. (springer.com)
  • Ayars JE, Christen EW, Hornbuckle JW (2006) Controlled drainage for improved water management in arid regions irrigated agriculture. (springer.com)
  • Kirkham D (1957) Theory of seepage of ponded water into drainage facilities. (springer.com)
  • However, as the municipal corporation is not equipped with the expertise to renovate drainage channels, drainage division, Cuttack under the water resources department was entrusted with the job at a cost of Rs 28.79 crore on February 25, 2011. (telegraphindia.com)
  • Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area. (wikipedia.org)
  • All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the monitoring by Seattle Public Utilities, they report a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage project Drainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage options for the construction industry include: Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies (points). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage criteria One would not want the water table to be too shallow to avoid crop yield depression nor too deep to avoid drought conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISBN 90-70754-33-9 Data provided by various authors on banana, cotton, sugarcane and wheat response to shallow water tables Drainage research in farmers' fields: analysis of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the drainage gradient is too low, rain and melt water drainage will be insufficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage law is a specific area of water law related to drainage of surface water on real property. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discussion of Connecticut surface water law from the Connecticut State Law Library Section 400 of the Hydrologic Criteria and Drainage Design Manual from the Clark County Regional Flood Control District, which provides an extensive discussion of drainage law in Nevada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other terms used interchangeably with drainage basin are catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, and water basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channelling it to a single point. (wikipedia.org)
  • districts
  • Drainage districts occur in England and Wales, varying in size from a few hundred acres to over 100,000 acres (400 km2), all in low-lying areas of the country where flood risk management and land drainage are sensitive issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special drainage districts could be created for the built-up parts of rural area in England, under the provisions of the Sewage Utilization Act 1865, Sewage Utilization Act 1867, Sanitary Act 1866 and Public Health Act 1872. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage districts, run by drainage commissions, are able to levy property taxes to pay for the construction and maintenance drainage systems for the district. (wikipedia.org)
  • this plan combined a number of local drainage districts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of Texas authorized the formation of drainage districts in 1905. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a/records.aspx?cat=046-cp_1&cid=28-2-10-1#28-2-10-1 Drainage Districts, Illinois State Archives, 2014 Article VI, State Constitution of 1974, Louisiana. (wikipedia.org)
  • pipes
  • Such geotextiles can also cover perforated drainage pipes to prevent silt and other particulates from clogging the interior of the pipes. (ehow.com)
  • Instead, waste matter leaves your house because the drainage pipes all pitch, or angle, downward. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Tile drainage got its name from tiles made from fired clay (ceramic), similar to terracotta pipes but not necessarily in a pipe shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • tunnel
  • A drainage tunnel is a tunnel dug under some region requiring drainage, either from lower elevation or from a location where a pumping station can be economically run. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest of these is the Hong Kong West Drainage Tunnel, comprising an 11-kilometre long main tunnel and 8 km of adits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lai Chi Kok Drainage Tunnel encircles Sham Shui Po and Lai Chi Kok. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tsuen Wan Drainage Tunnel protects the Tsuen Wan New Town and Kwai Chung areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • returns the lat/lon coordinates of a given drainage basin divide. (mathworks.com)
  • A valley floor divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor drainage divide Waters part, but eventually rejoin at a river confluence (for example: the Mississippi and Missouri divides) A valley-floor divide occurs on the bottom of a valley and arises as a result of subsequent depositions, such as scree, in a valley through which a river originally flowed continuously. (wikipedia.org)
  • In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • Install subsoil drainage systems to conduct moisture away from a given area. (ehow.com)
  • In marsh deltas such as the Okavango, the largest drainage area on earth, or in large lakes areas, such as the Finnish Lakeland, it is difficult to find a meaningful definition of a watershed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise the pavement will get an area with too little drainage gradient ( (wikipedia.org)
  • Each drainage district has a defined area, and the IDB only has powers to deal with matters affecting that area. (wikipedia.org)
  • parcel
  • Application of the civil law rule in its purest form would inhibit the development of land, since virtually every improvement on a parcel would alter the natural drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It allows a landowner to make "reasonable" alteration to the drainage pattern of his parcel, with liability only occurring when the alteration causes "unreasonable" harm toward neighboring parcels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plumbing
  • The Plumbing & Drainage Institute (PDI) is an association of American manufacturers of engineered plumbing drainage specialty products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certified Products carry the Seal of the Plumbing & Drainage Institute as evidence that the product has met the specified requirements of the Institute's Standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special PDI Supplement: A Closer Look at the Plumbing and Drainage Institute" (magazine). (wikipedia.org)
  • landowner
  • Because the reasonable use rule presents a subjective standard, courts will often employ a balancing test to determine whether a landowner is liable to his neighbors for his alteration of drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • disposal
  • Mitigation to facilitate the disposal of drainage to surface waters should preferably start at the field level. (fao.org)
  • install
  • After much thought I have finally started to install drainage. (ibiblio.org)
  • While there were some minor administrative failings, the Council has no liability to take action to install drainage on the road and, as it has now agreed to carry out some works as a goodwill gesture to help Mr A, we will not pursue the complaint any further. (lgo.org.uk)