• regimens
  • These regimens, though effective, do not completely eliminate HIV and the development of drug resistance is a major clinical problem. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Previous short-term clinical studies in adults showed anti-HIV activity, although there were safety and tolerability problems associated with the higher dose regimens used. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cohort II
  • Progression to Cohort II (at a higher or lower drug dosage) will be decided according to safety, tolerance or viral load in Cohort I. All therapy for Group I/II, whether in Cohort I or II, will be introduced as follows: single dose of ritonavir on Day 0, ritonavir monotherapy through Day 7 AM and combination therapy from Day 7 PM through Week 104. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The dose for Cohort II is now increased. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • therapeutic
  • Undesirable effects of a drug include: Increased probability of cell mutation (carcinogenic activity) A multitude of simultaneous assorted actions which may be deleterious Interaction (additive, multiplicative, or metabolic) Induced physiological damage, or abnormal chronic conditions The therapeutic window is the amount of a medication between the amount that gives an effect (effective dose) and the amount that gives more adverse effects than desired effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern, a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the "more addictive" psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes, but may be used to describe any case where a substance is introduced to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measures of pollutant concentration Dose-response relationship Certain safety factor IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) LD50 (median lethal dose) Therapeutic index Introducing dose response curves Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • From this, Hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars" that had been proposed by ancient physicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-the-counter medications are typically accompanied by a set of instructions directing the patient to take a certain small dose, followed by another small dose if their symptoms don't subside. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 review said that "Because longitudinal work indicates that cannabis use precedes psychotic symptoms, it seems reasonable to assume a causal relationship" between cannabis and psychosis, but that "more work is needed to address the possibility of gene-environment correlation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the dose is tolerated, patients are added and if safety criteria are met, patients are enrolled in the next higher dose level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients initially receive the next lower PEG-Intron dose to the optimal dose identified in Cohort I [AS PER AMENDMENT 07/23/01: or 1 microg/kg if the optimal dose proves to be 1 microg/kg]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If this dose is safely tolerated, additional patients are added. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If this dose level meets safety criteria, patients are enrolled to receive the optimal dose level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the anti-HIV activity of PMPA prodrug, as demonstrated by increases in CD4 cell counts and decreases in HIV RNA, when administered orally as a single dose and daily for 4 weeks to HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 or more cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 60 patients are randomized to receive PMPA prodrug at 1 of 5 doses or matching placebo tablets. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Part A (Days 1-7): Patients receive a single dose of PMPA prodrug or matching placebo tablets administered orally followed by a 1-week observation period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients who complete Part A without a dose-limiting toxicity begin Part B. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of biweekly administration of 1 of 3 doses of aerosol pentamidine when used as a prophylactic agent in patients who have recovered from their first episode of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In HIV-uninfected patients with acute HCV infection, the presence of vigorous T-cell proliferative responses to HCV proteins is associated with normalization of serum transaminase levels and viral clearance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If patients have not been on anti-HIV drugs, they should not start them during the first 24 weeks of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this double-blind, dose-escalating study, patients receive fozivudine tidoxil at one of 5 dosage levels for 4 weeks and are randomized with respect to once- or twice-daily administration (cohorts 2 vs. 3 and 4 vs. 5). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Within each cohort, 10 patients are randomized to the study drug and 2 to the placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While on the treatment extension, patients must continue their current schedule for study drug administration and completion of study visits. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are then randomly chosen to receive one of three different foscarnet doses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, those patients who are clinically stable and have not experienced severe toxicity at the end of the 4 weeks may continue treatment, in the form of a single daily dose of foscarnet to be administered 5 days per week. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Effective 7-17-89, patients entering the study are assigned to the lowest foscarnet dose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Advancements in anti- HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose of CI-1012 in late-stage HIV-1-infected patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Various chemotherapy drugs have shown increased risk of cancer patients developing leukoencephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been argued that a more nuanced view in which the needs of individual patients are matched to the properties of individual drugs is more appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clozapine is an effective treatment for those who respond poorly to other drugs, but it has the potentially serious side effect of agranulocytosis (lowered white blood cell count) in 1-4% of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The heart valve changes seen with moderate and intermittent use can result in permanent damage and life-threatening heart problems if use of the causative drug is increased or continued, however longitudinal studies of former patients suggest that the damage will heal over time to some extent at least. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy within 3 months prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Medication underdosing occurs commonly when physicians write prescriptions for a dosage that is correct for a certain time, but fails to increase the dosage as the patient needs (i.e. weight based dosing in children, or increasing dosages of chemotherapy drugs if a patient's condition worsens). (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • some drugs possess receptor activity that allows them to stabilize general receptor activation, like buprenorphine in opioid dependent individuals or aripiprazole in schizophrenia, all depending on the dose and the recipient) exchanging/replacing substances or accumulating them to form a reserve (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dose-response relationship for these substances remains unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nootropics (English pronunciation: /noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some substances are meant to be taken in small doses over large periods of time to maintain a constant level in the body, while others are meant to have a large impact once and be expelled from the body after its work is done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Designer drugs are structural or functional analogues of controlled substances that are designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the parent drug while avoiding detection or classification as illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some designer drugs (research chemicals) are structural analogues of psychoactive tryptamines or phenethylamines but there are many other chemically unrelated psychoactive substances that can be considered part of the designer drug group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, many paralysing substances have no exciting effect in weak doses, and what constitutes a weak, medium or strong stimulus is highly individual, as pointed out by Arndt himself. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury also account for a substantial number of compound failures, highlighting the need for drug screening assays, such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • inverse agonist) blocking/antagonizing action (as with silent antagonists), the drug binds the receptor but does not activate it stabilizing action, the drug seems to act neither as a stimulant or as a depressant (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon drug binding, receptors can elicit their normal action (agonist), blocked action (antagonist), or even action opposite to normal (inverse agonist). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although lisuride, a related drug, also binds to the 5-HT2B receptor, it acts as an antagonist rather than as an agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Toxic leukoencephalopathy or toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare condition that is characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) to white matter (-leuko-) in the brain (-encephalo-), particularly myelin, due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EC50 of a quantal dose response curve represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of the population exhibit a response, after a specified exposure duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of a stressor or drug generally depend on the exposure time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies of how living systems react to stimuli showed that physiological responses could be obtained with some regularity upon exposure to defined doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Pharmacodynamics places particular emphasis on dose-response relationships, that is, the relationships between drug concentration and effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle, a pharmacologist would aim for a target plasma concentration of the drug for a desired level of response. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, medication with a small pharmaceutical window must be administered with care and control, e.g. by frequently measuring blood concentration of the drug, since it easily loses effects or gives adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments must be carried out on a very wide range (therefore the logarithmic scale) as the mechanisms differ over a large scale, such as at high concentration of drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • EC50 is expressed in molar units (M), where 1 M is equivalent to 1 mol/L. The EC50 of a graded dose response curve therefore represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of its maximal effect is observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Schild regression analysis, named for Heinz Otto Schild, is a useful tool for studying the effects of agonists and antagonists on the cellular response caused by the receptor or on ligand-receptor binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • PEG-Intron has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hepatitis C in adults, but in this study, it is being used as an investigational agent for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The subject must agree not to change the antiviral regimen during the 12 weeks of study drug administration (unless medically mandated). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IL-2 is being tested in this study to see if it will 'boost' the immune system's response to HCV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Have been on the same anti-HIV drugs and doses, if on any, for 8 weeks or longer and intend to stay on these drugs the first 24 weeks of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Primary and secondary prophylaxis for opportunistic infection if stable and initiated at least 3 months prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Immunomodulators within one month prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Investigational drugs within 30 days prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extended-field radiation therapy within 3 months prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood transfusion within 2 weeks prior to study drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study examines the safety and effectiveness of ritonavir (an anti-HIV drug), alone and in combination with other anti-HIV drugs, in HIV-positive children under 2 years of age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will also determine the most effective doses of ritonavir for future pediatric HIV studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti- HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe to give multiple doses of CPI-1189 to HIV-infected, otherwise healthy, males. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will also look at how CPI-1189 affects the levels of HIV, T cells (cells in the body that help fight infection), and three anti-HIV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir) in the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volunteers enter the study site the night before dosing on Days 1 and 15 and remain at the study site for 72 hours following dosing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is determined or proposed by qualified personnel (pharmacologist, toxicologist) depending on the study, drug indications and its pharmacological therapeutics side/adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Both together influence dosing, benefit, and adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relation between benchmark dose and no-observed-adverse-effect level in clinical research: Effects of daily alcohol intake on blood pressure in Japanese salesmen" (Submitted manuscript). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse drug reactions are classified as type A (intrinsic or pharmacological) or type B (idiosyncratic). (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The widest class of drugs act as ligands which bind to receptors which determine cellular effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1P-ETH-LAD, 1-Propionyl-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD, 1-Propionyl-LSD ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-LSD AL-LAD, 6-Allyl-6-Nor-LSD ETH-LAD, 6-Ethyl-6-Nor-LSD LSM-775, N-Morpholinyllysergamide LSZ, LA-SS-Az Drugs containing the tryptamine moiety are typically substrates for the serotonin receptors, in keeping with their close structural resemblance to serotonin, a neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of this was unknown at the time, but eventually it was realised that all the implicated drugs acted as agonists at 5-HT2B receptors in the heart in addition to their intended sites of action elsewhere in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some appetite suppressant drugs such as fenfluramine (which in combination with phentermine was marketed as Pondimin and commonly referred to as fen-phen), chlorphentermine, and aminorex (along with its analogue 4-Methylaminorex which has seen sporadic use as a recreational drug) induce a similar pattern of cardiac fibrosis (and pulmonary hypertension), apparently by over-stimulating 5HT2B receptors on the cardiac fibroblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain antimigraine drugs which are targeted at serotonin receptors as vasoconstrictive agents, have long been known to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon (both vasoconstrictive effects), as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis (a fibrotic cell/fibrocyte proliferation effect, thought to be similar to cardiac valve fibrosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain antiparkinson drugs, although targeted at dopaminergic receptors, cross-react with serotoninergic 5-HT2B receptors as well, and have been reported to cause cardiac fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • small dose
  • Homeopaths claim that Hippocrates may have originated homeopathy around 400 BC, when he prescribed a small dose of mandrake root to treat mania, knowing it produces mania in much larger doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating drug dosages for treatment for more serious diseases like cancer is commonly done through measuring the Body Surface Area of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • ritonavir
  • All therapy for Group IIIA & IIIB, whether in Cohort I or II, will be introduced as follows: single dose of ritonavir on Day 0 AM and transition to combination therapy Day 0 PM through Week 104. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Duration
  • The duration of action of a drug is the length of time that particular drug is effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duration of action is a function of several parameters including plasma half-life, the time to equilibrate between plasma and target compartments, and the off rate of the drug from its biological target. (wikipedia.org)
  • It either does not provide the effects of drug with respect to duration and dose, or it does not address the interpretation of risk based on toxicologically relevant effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • vein
  • Contraindications to high-dose megestrol acetate (poorly controlled hypertension or heart failure or deep vein thrombosis). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In rabbits, and injection into the ear vein in doses of 0.1-1mg/kg produced dilatation of the pupil, excitability or convulsions of a clinic type. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Infants and children are stratified by age, representative of the developmental differences related to drug metabolism (Group I: at least 6 months - 2 years, Group II: 3-6 months, Group IIIA: 1 month - 10 weeks, IIIB: 1 month - less than 3 months). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Enzyme-substrate binding is a way to alter the production or metabolism of key endogenous chemicals, for example aspirin irreversibly inhibits the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase) thereby preventing inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors may exist which would alter metabolism or drug action itself, and a patient's immediate status may also affect indicated dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Metabolism and Disposition (2002), 30, 1230-1239. (wikipedia.org)
  • overdose
  • Acetaminophen (in the US and Japan), paracetamol (INN), also known by the brand name Tylenol and Panadol, is usually well tolerated in prescribed dose, but overdose is the most common cause of drug-induced liver disease and acute liver failure worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • There are 7 main drug actions: stimulating action through direct receptor agonism and downstream effects depressing action through direct receptor agonism and downstream effects (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This class of drugs are mimics of serotonin that activate 5-HT receptor subtypes that release norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among similar antiparkinsonian drugs, cabergoline exhibits the same type of serotonin receptor binding as pergolide. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety
  • Doses are escalated based on safety assessments: As soon as a dose meets the criteria for 'tolerated' or 'not tolerated', doses are escalated or terminated, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, "evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • ingestion
  • The risk of liver injury is influenced by several factors including the dose ingested, concurrent alcohol or other drug intake, interval between ingestion and antidote, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • When used as a wash on the vagina during labor, and on a newborn shortly after birth, a higher dose of chlorhexidine is more likely to reduce the rate of HIV-1 transmission from mother to baby. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Laboratory tests suggest that a higher dose of chlorhexidine will be more effective in killing HIV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The dose toxic to the liver is quite variable from person to person and is often thought to be lower in chronic alcoholics Measurement of blood level is important in assessing prognosis, higher levels predicting a worse prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • with higher doses (0.3/0.5mg/kg and more) the blood pressure increased moderately without showing any dose/response relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • Drugs come with a recommended dose in milligrams or micrograms per kilogram of body weight, and that is used in conjunction with the patient's body weight to determine a safe dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In single dosage scenarios, the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • cannabis
  • The dose of cannabis depends on the individual, the condition being treated, and the ratio of cannabidiol (CBD) to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the Western world, and in the US 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily become dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year, a review examined psychological therapy as add-on for people with schizophrenia who are using cannabis: A 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, and that a dose-response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals
  • The correct dosage for a patient is dependent on their individual reaction to both chemicals, and therefore the dosing must be continually adjusted once treatment is initiated to find the right balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The usual treatment for HCV in people who are not HIV-infected is interferon-alfa (IFN) with ribavirin (RBV), an approved treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment with anti-HIV drugs administered at an early age may slow disease progression in infant populations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Homeopathy is not a plausible system of treatment, as its dogmas about how drugs, illness, the human body, liquids and solutions operate are contradicted by a wide range of discoveries across biology, psychology, physics and chemistry made in the two centuries since its invention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukoencephalopathy can develop from long-term treatment of methotrexate even at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law. (wikipedia.org)
  • In drugs where multiple doses of treatment are needed in a day, the physician must take into account information regarding the total amount of the drug which is safe to use in one day, and how that should be broken up into intervals for the most effective treatment for the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • ergotamine
  • These drugs include ergotamine and methysergide and both drugs can also cause cardiac fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the isolated seminal vesicles of the guinea pig, the new alkaloid was approximately 200 times less potent than ergotamine tartrate as an adrenergic blocking drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Empathogens
  • Several serotonergic recreational drugs, including the empathogens MDA and MDMA ("ecstasy"), and some hallucinogens such as DOI and Bromo-DragonFLY, have all been shown to act as 5-HT2B agonists in vitro, but how significant this may be as a risk factor associated with their recreational use is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • recreational drugs
  • Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 5-35% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs. (wikipedia.org)