• brainstem
  • The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (DLF) (not to be confused with the medial longitudinal fasciculus, nor the superior longitudinal fasciculus) is a white matter fiber tract located within the brain stem, specifically in the dorsal brainstem tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tract is composed of a diffuse brainstem pathway located in the periventricular gray matter comprising ascending visceral sensory axons and descending hypothalamic axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • NmU and its receptors are also abundantly expressed in nociceptive sensory pathways, including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal cord, and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • arcuate
  • Although not only the SCN but also the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are involved in the Tb setting through afferents to the thermoregulatory median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance between the releases of neuropeptides derived from the biological clock and from a metabolic sensory organ as the arcuate nucleus, are essential for an adequate temperature control. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • ICV injections of NmU in rats and mice induce behavior responses associated with activation of the nociceptive pathways, for example it will increase plasma levels of corticosterone, and stimulates the release of CRH from hypothalamic explants in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomical
  • Both the connectivity and anatomical position of the median preoptic nucleus allow it to be both a relay station and mediator for sensory and regulatory information, and produce neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • suprachiasmatic
  • It's known that mammals have a circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) that depend on the integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), However, fasting also influences the Tb in the resting period and the presence of the SCN is essential for this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • hindbrain
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that these hindbrain nuclei and the bidirectional connections with the PVN ( 2 , 20 , 28 , 34 , 35 ) may form part of the inhibitory circuit of sodium appetite ( 7 , 21 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • Estradiol regulates effects of hindbrain AICAR administration on hypothalamic AMPK activity and metabolic neurotransmitter mRNA and protein expression. (springer.com)
  • sensory
  • Thermoregulation includes both responses to infection and to decreased core temperature upon cutaneous exposure to cold, both of which involve the median preoptic nucleus as an important mediator of sensory input and regulatory output. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • This structure has direct connections with the Retina & plays a major role in the 'Circadian Rhythm' of the hypothalamic systems (hormone release, temp. (sporcle.com)
  • Intracerebroventricular
  • Both NmUR2 expression and NmU-23 binding sites are highly localized to the outer layers of the spinal dorsal horn, and administration of NmU via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections usually increases pain sensitivity in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • visceral
  • In order to maintain this function, the autonomic system must process visceral information and coordinate neural elements that innervate the heart , blood vessels, and respiration. (britannica.com)
  • oxytocinergic
  • The long-descending oxytocinergic projection from the PVN to the DMV has been reported to serve as a link in the main neural control of the gastric function, indicating the important role of OT in autonomic function. (researchgate.net)
  • expression
  • Central administration of NmU also induces expression of key genes in hypothalamic areas associated with stress, as well as stress-related behaviours that can be blocked by CRH antagonist (this is absent from CRH knockout mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • The role that the median preoptic nucleus plays in osmoregulation is in blood composition and volume, including fluid and salt balance, and produces responses ranging from behavioral to endocrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Currently, to date, the application of theoretical knowledge acquired on the relatively recent neuroscientific concepts and evidence concerning of interoception, sensitization, touch, autonomic functions, inflammation, and pain into a clinical/research manual medicine scenario is lacking, even if theoretically, the impact on the possible etiological mechanisms and treatment effects seems to be important. (frontiersin.org)
  • mRNA
  • Exposure to the psychological stressor also caused a significant increase in CRH mRNA levels with a trend for an increase in CRH content in the dorsolateral subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) which is anatomically associated with the CEA. (wikipedia.org)