• arcuate nucleus
  • Although not only the SCN but also the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are involved in the Tb setting through afferents to the thermoregulatory median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance between the releases of neuropeptides derived from the biological clock and from a metabolic sensory organ as the arcuate nucleus, are essential for an adequate temperature control. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • ICV injections of NmU in rats and mice induce behavior responses associated with activation of the nociceptive pathways, for example it will increase plasma levels of corticosterone, and stimulates the release of CRH from hypothalamic explants in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomical
  • Both the connectivity and anatomical position of the median preoptic nucleus allow it to be both a relay station and mediator for sensory and regulatory information, and produce neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forming a critical part of the anteroventral third ventricle and the midline of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus occupies an anatomical position that allows it to play an important role in many aspects of homeostatic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Precise regulation of circulating glucocorticoids, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is critical for preserving homeostasis under stress conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • The median preoptic nucleus is highly involved in cardiovascular regulation, including the release of atrial natriuretic peptide by the heart in response to high blood volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • suprachiasmatic
  • It's known that mammals have a circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) that depend on the integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), However, fasting also influences the Tb in the resting period and the presence of the SCN is essential for this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • Thermoregulation includes both responses to infection and to decreased core temperature upon cutaneous exposure to cold, both of which involve the median preoptic nucleus as an important mediator of sensory input and regulatory output. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that these hindbrain nuclei and the bidirectional connections with the PVN ( 2 , 20 , 28 , 34 , 35 ) may form part of the inhibitory circuit of sodium appetite ( 7 , 21 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • circadian
  • This structure has direct connections with the Retina & plays a major role in the 'Circadian Rhythm' of the hypothalamic systems (hormone release, temp. (sporcle.com)
  • mRNA
  • Exposure to the psychological stressor also caused a significant increase in CRH mRNA levels with a trend for an increase in CRH content in the dorsolateral subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) which is anatomically associated with the CEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICER mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased after 30 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h in a glucocorticoid-independent manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • amygdala
  • The amygdala is a collection of nuclei that lies within the uncus. (medscape.com)
  • The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • It "serves as the major output nucleus of the amygdala and participates in receiving and processing pain information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regions described as amygdala nuclei encompass several structures with distinct connectional and functional characteristics in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioid mechanisms are involved in the control of water and NaCl intake and opioid receptors (ORs) are present in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)" μ-opioid receptors "in the CeA increases hypertonic sodium intake, whereas antagonizing these sites inhibits hypertonic sodium intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responses
  • The role that the median preoptic nucleus plays in osmoregulation is in blood composition and volume, including fluid and salt balance, and produces responses ranging from behavioral to endocrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • visceral
  • In order to maintain this function, the autonomic system must process visceral information and coordinate neural elements that innervate the heart , blood vessels, and respiration. (britannica.com)
  • rats
  • Both NmUR2 expression and NmU-23 binding sites are highly localized to the outer layers of the spinal dorsal horn, and administration of NmU via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections usually increases pain sensitivity in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxytocinergic
  • The long-descending oxytocinergic projection from the PVN to the DMV has been reported to serve as a link in the main neural control of the gastric function, indicating the important role of OT in autonomic function. (researchgate.net)
  • expression
  • Central administration of NmU also induces expression of key genes in hypothalamic areas associated with stress, as well as stress-related behaviours that can be blocked by CRH antagonist (this is absent from CRH knockout mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • The adrenal cortex synthesizes and secretes steroid hormones that are essential for life, but it is not under autonomic control. (britannica.com)
  • physiological
  • Adverse events, often denoted as "stressors," initiate a diverse physiological response from multiple sources, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • clinical
  • Currently, to date, the application of theoretical knowledge acquired on the relatively recent neuroscientific concepts and evidence concerning of interoception, sensitization, touch, autonomic functions, inflammation, and pain into a clinical/research manual medicine scenario is lacking, even if theoretically, the impact on the possible etiological mechanisms and treatment effects seems to be important. (frontiersin.org)
  • neural
  • The peripheral nervous system consists of the extensions of neural structures beyond the central nervous system and includes somatic and autonomic divisions. (medscape.com)