• viral
  • Plant defenses against viral infection include, among other measures, the use of siRNA in response to dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus - black cricket (Teleogryllus commodus) Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 1 - cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 - cotton bollworm Penaeus monodon nudivirus - a shrimp Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus - rhinoceros beetle (Dynastinae species) Drosophila innubila Nudivirus - Drosophila innubila (Diptera) In many organisms, apoptosis can be regarded as an early cellular defense mechanism against a strong viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • in some viruses, such as poliovirus and rhinoviruses, normal protein synthesis is further disrupted by viral proteases degrading components required to initiate translation of cellular mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck, who was a Professor of Microbiology at the Technical University the Netherlands, put forth his concepts that viruses were small and determined that the "mosaic disease" remained infectious when passed through a Chamberland filter-candle. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • Lassa virus (Arenaviridae) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenaviridae) Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies (Rhabdoviridae) Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae) The genome for negative-stranded RNA virus (NSV) consists of one to several single-stranded RNAs, which are assembled into complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Understanding the virus genetics and protein functions has been used to explore the potential for commercial use by biotechnology companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Baculoviruses and nudiviruses differ in gene content, genome organization, cytopathology, infection of adults and most likely in host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections can be lethal for the larvae and can possibly reduce the fitness of the host by reducing offspring production and survival among adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packaged Virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host caterpillar and infects cells of the caterpillar (Whitfield, 1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent metagenomics studies have also identified large numbers of RNA viruses whose host range is specific to insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that are usually different from animal viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Gene content and sequence similarity suggest that the nudiviruses GbNV, HzNV-1, and OrNV form a monophyletic group of nonoccluded double-stranded DNA viruses, which separated from the baculovirus lineage before this radiated into dipteran-, hymenopteran-, and lepidopteran-specific clades of occluded nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus genome, in proviral form, is integrated on wasp genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • extremely
  • Viruses are extremely small and can only be observed under an electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the (+)ssRNA picornavirus group are also extremely abundant - to the point of "unexpected dominance" - in marine viruses characterized by metagenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Without the virus infection, Phagocyte Hemocyte (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg but the immune suppression caused by the virus allows for survival of the wasp egg, leading to hatching and complete development of the immature wasp in the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)