• Herpes Simplex
  • This study (the Partners in Prevention Study) will enroll HIV discordant heterosexual couples in which the HIV-infected partner is co-infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to test the efficacy of twice daily (bid) acyclovir (400 mg) given to the HIV-infected partner to prevent transmission to his/her HIV negative partner(s). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the primary cause of genital ulcers and one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Due to the genetic similarity of both herpes simplex virus types (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the development of a prophylactic-therapeutic vaccine that proves effective against one type of the virus would likely prove effective for the other virus type, or at least provide most of the necessary fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)
  • viremia
  • This is a single-arm non-randomized single institution phase 2 trial, designed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of CMVpp65-CTLs generated from seropositive HSCT donors when adoptively transferred into transplant recipients with persistent CMV infection or viremia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients eligible for this trial will be consenting recipients of related or unrelated HSCT who have an active CMV infection or persistent CMV viremia for ≥ 2 weeks despite treatment with anti-viral agents or who cannot be maintained on anti-viral therapy due to treatment related toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in many cases allows the stabilization of the patient's symptoms, partial recovery of CD4+ T-cell levels, and reduction in viremia (the level of virus in the blood) to low or near-undetectable levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • It has also been shown that the vaccine induces strong HSV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses, protects against challenge with a wild-type HSV-2 virus, reduces the severity of recurrent disease, provides cross-protection against HSV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive HIV antibody tests are usually followed up by retests and tests for antigens, viral genetic material and the virus itself, providing confirmation of actual infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, it is the intent of the vaccine to expose the individual's immune response to the HSV proteins it may have been missing from a wild type virus in order to effectively control the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, many viruses inhibit the synthesis of host DNA, RNA, proteins directly or even interfere with protein-protein, DNA-protein, RNA-protein interactions at the subcellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Researchers have discovered a tube-shaped structure that forms temporarily in a certain type of virus to deliver its DNA during the infection process, and then dissolves after its job is completed. (nsf.gov)
  • Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, cGAMP synthase), belonging to the nucleotidyltransferase family, is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type-I interferon pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The fact that a live, attenuated vaccine induced better protection from HSV infection and symptoms is not new, because live-attenuated vaccines account for the most of the successful vaccines in the use until today. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, governmental and corporate bodies seem to support the more recent and safer but possibly less effective approaches such as Glycoprotein and DNA based vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • In 1988 and 2002, thousands of harbor seals were killed in Europe by the measles-like phocine distemper virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • or (2) a clinical presentation (symptoms and/or signs) and specific laboratory findings* suggestive of VZV infection in the absence of characteristic HZ or VZV rash. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Jersey and Guernsey breeds of cattle are particularly susceptible to pox viruses, with symptoms characterised by widespread, unsightly skin lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical symptoms of viral infection include external hemorrhaging, pale gills, and ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • A recent study of HIV-discordant couples from Rakai, Uganda, has shown that at all levels of HIV viral load in the HIV-positive partner, HSV-2 infection in the susceptible partner increased the per-contact risk of acquisition of HIV five-fold, and GUD in the HIV-source partner increased the per-contact risk of HIV transmission five-fold. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Humans cannot be infected by plant or insect viruses, but they are susceptible to infections with viruses from other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • The size of these genomes can vary depending on the giant virus it infects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Stygiolobus rod-shaped virus, SRV, which infects a hyperthermophilic Stygiolobus species, was isolated from a hot spring in the Azores, Portugal in 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, transcription of viral DNA can occur from the circular form only. (wikipedia.org)
  • cccDNA in HBV is formed by conversion of capsid-associated relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The virus originated in cats, the vector of feline panleukopenia, but a mutation that changed just two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2 allowed it to cross the species barrier, and dogs, unlike cats, had no resistance to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is found to interact with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure revealed a previously unknown form of virion organization, in which the alpha-helical major capsid protein of SIRV2 wraps around the DNA, making it inaccessible to solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Additional 3 week courses of CMVpp65-CTL may be administered if levels of CMV DNA in blood are still detectable despite disease stabilization or improvement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The disease spread rapidly across the world, and thousands of dogs died from the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canine distemper virus is closely related to measles virus and is the most important viral disease of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • The most current list of discovered virophages include Sputnik, Sputnik_2, Sputnik_3, Zamilon and Mavirus which were all found in eukaryotic hosts with their co-infecting giant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • develops resistance
  • The main benefit of adefovir over lamivudine (the first NRTI approved for the treatment of hepatitis B) is that it takes a much longer period of time before the virus develops resistance to it. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High levels of HIV-1 (often HAART-resistant) develop if treatment is stopped, if compliance with treatment is inconsistent, or if the virus spontaneously develops resistance to an individual's regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • One of the characteristics of virophages is that they have a parasitic relationship with the co-infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In metagenomic analysis, DNA data is sequenced and ran through multiple bioinformatic algorithms which, based on what is being analyzed, pull out certain important patterns and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Lastly, biologic effects include the viruses' ability to affect the activity of antigens and immunologlobulins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Umifenovir (trade name Russian: Арбидол, Chinese: 阿比朵尔) is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia and China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiretroviral treatment known as post-exposure prophylaxis reduces the chance of acquiring an HIV infection when administered within 72 hours of exposure to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Misconceptions about HIV and AIDS arise from several different sources, from simple ignorance and misunderstandings about scientific knowledge regarding HIV infections and the cause of AIDS to misinformation propagated by individuals and groups with ideological stances that deny a causative relationship between HIV infection and the development of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this virus is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • The endpoint of this study is complete response, defined as the clearance of the CMV infection 3-7 weeks following completion of the last cycle of CMV CTLs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 12 10: e1005966 The AIM2-like Receptors Are Dispensable for the Interferon Response to Intracellular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Viruses use different strategies to overcome the host defense system. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, the discovery of the virophage associated with the Samba virus decreased the viruses concentration in the host while the virophage was replicating using the giant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host amoeba also showed a partial recovery from the infection by the Samba virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virophages have been known to render a giant virus inactive and improve the condition of the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Consistently, over 30 studies have found HSV-2 infection to be a risk factor for HIV acquisition with an overall relative risk of 2.1 in the studies that demonstrated HSV-2 preceded HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The virus has been found in high concentrations in the liver and kidney, but lower numbers of virions have been isolated from the spleen. (wikipedia.org)