• levels of methylation
  • Lower levels of methylation have been linked to a variety of diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Her contribution to plant science includes her early work, cloning the first plant (METI), and her work demonstrating that DNA methylation (a biochemical process that modifies the plant's DNA) is essential for normal plant development and by reducing levels of methylation changes the plant's size and shape, flowering time, structure of the flowers and number of seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • She generated plants with reduced levels of DNA methylation using an antisense against METI, and determined the molecular basis for the abnormal phenotypes displayed by plants with reduced levels of methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics
  • Smoking during pregnancy profoundly changes both DNA and the expression of placental genes, a possible factor in physical changes that can last a lifetime, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report in the current edition of the journal Epigenetics. (redorbit.com)
  • She is the author of The Epigenetics Revolution and Junk DNA: A Journey Through the Dark Matter of the Genome which explore advances in the field of epigenetics and their implications for medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] She continues to be a leader in her field through her research on flowering processes and the role of DNA methylation and epigenetics helping to understand the mechanisms contributing to the down-regulation of flowering locus C (FLC) in vernalized plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Repair, 3, 671-682 (2004) Epigenetics: a historical overview. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics refers to the study of long-term changes in gene expression, which may or may not be heritable, which are not caused by changes to the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The near-universal replacement of uracil by thymine in DNA, but not RNA, may have evolved as an error-control mechanism, to facilitate the removal of uracils generated by the spontaneous deamination of cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if silencing of a gene is initiated by another mechanism, this often is followed by methylation of CpG sites in the promoter CpG island to stabilize the silencing of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tissue culture cells this process is highly specific and appears to involve an active mechanism which takes place in the absence of DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • There are three mechanism that can cause 6q24-related TNDM, which includes the father's DNA being defected by uniparental isodisomy (UPD) on chromosome 6 and inherited duplication of 6q24 (inherited duplication is a small chromosomal change in which a very little amount of genetic material is copied in chromosome 6). (wikipedia.org)
  • Holliday described a mechanism of DNA-strand exchange that attempted to explain gene-conversion events that occur during meiosis in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • heritable
  • Gene silencing mediated by promoter homology occur at the level of transcription and results in meiotically heritable alterations in methylation and gene activity, Plant J., 1996, 9(2): 183. (springer.com)
  • These mechanisms contribute to regulating gene expression without changing the sequence of the DNA and may be influenced by exposure to environmental factors and may be heritable from parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • As opposed to the programmed changes in DNA methylation which occur in vivo, immortalized tissue culture cells demonstrate alterations in DNA modification which take place over a long time scale and which appear to be the result of selective pressures present during the growth of these cells in culture. (nih.gov)
  • This technology has been used to correlate DNA methylation to tumor type and gene expression, to measure cellular response to treatment with demethylating agents, and to assess changes in methylation state in relation to tumorigenesis, genetic imprinting, and exposure to environmental toxins (1). (qiagen.com)
  • In a study that correlated changes in DNA methylation (a chemical change that affects the level of gene expression) to changes in gene expression across the genome of the placenta (the small ovoid organ that nourishes the embryo in the uterus), Dr. Kjersti Aagaard and her colleagues found changes in methylation and gene expression of only 25 genes in non-smokers but 438 genes among smokers. (redorbit.com)
  • Aging of blood can be tracked by DNA methylation changes at just three CpG sites," Genome Biology , vol. 15, no. 2, article R24, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • But in some diseases, cancers in particular, aberrant CpG methylation changes may occur, and both genomewide hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation in promoters of tumor suppressor genes can be observed. (qiagen.com)
  • QIAGEN
  • With unique DNA Protect technology, QIAGEN EpiTect Bisulfite Kits facilitate complete conversion and minimal degradation of the treated DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • 2002
  • Experimental Gerontology 37, 851-857 (2002) Early studies on recombination and DNA repair in Ustilago maydis. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • Furthermore, non-CpG methylation has also been observed in hematopoietic progenitor cells, and it occurred mainly in a CpApC sequence context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other valuable features include the inherent quality control afforded by the sequence context of results and the ability to compare results to expected methylation levels. (qiagen.com)
  • replication
  • This misincorporated base will not be corrected during DNA replication as thymine is a DNA base. (wikipedia.org)
  • They wanted to use radioactive nucleotides to tag replicating DNA and then use photographic film to create a physical image of what happens during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using their method, they were able to measure the rate of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicated that chromosomal DNA contained many sections, which replicated independently, and that replication occurred in both directions at each section's origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • 4% methylated, but I don't know if that means it was below their limits of detection or they could see almost 4% methylation at those sites. (bio.net)
  • Built-in controls for the bisulfite treatment eliminate manual estimation of non-converted DNA levels and prevent false-positive methylation detection, thereby ensuring the reliability of results. (qiagen.com)
  • occur
  • Twenty-two DNA repair genes with hypermethylated promoters, and reduced or absent expression, were found to occur among 17 types of cancer, as listed in two review articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In sporadic cancers, a DNA repair deficiency is occasionally found to be due to a mutation in a DNA repair gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, among 119 cases of mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers that lacked DNA repair gene PMS2 expression, 6 had a mutation in the PMS2 gene, while for 103 PMS2 was deficient because its pairing partner MLH1 was repressed due to promoter methylation (PMS2 protein is unstable in the absence of MLH1). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Although recent advances in genome sequencing have revolutionized the study of DNA methylation, existing methylome data remain largely untapped in the study of imprinting. (rti.org)
  • DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life," Genome Biology , vol. 16, article 25, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • sequences
  • They also developed a method in which researchers add short "linkers" to DNA sequences and insert them into bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Nature paper from 1981 (Vol. 292, 860-862), where nearest neighbor analysis was used to show a high level of methylation at CG and CXG. (bio.net)
  • This example shows the analysis of a sequence with a CpN site (CpA in this case) in the first position, followed by 2 classical CpG sites (see figure New mode for analyzing CpN methylation ). (qiagen.com)
  • They hoped to mix E. coli lac repressor with lac operator, crystallize it, and examine the protein-DNA binding of the crystals using high-resolution DNA methylation analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • A long noncoding RNA associated with DNA methylation has the power to regulate colon cancer growth in vitro. (the-scientist.com)
  • This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • DNA methylation in cancer plays a variety of roles, helping to change the healthy regulation of gene expression to a disease pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, much more frequently, reduced or absent expression of a DNA repair gene in cancer is due to methylation of its promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation and gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The research focused on DNA methylation, the signalling tool that cells use to control gene expression and that is a crucial part of normal development ( International Journal of Epidemiology doi:10.1093/ije/dyr215). (bmj.com)
  • Just as we expected from our previous studies in one gene, this dysregulation between DNA methylation and gene expression when a mom smokes is pretty profound," said Aagaard, an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at BCM and senior author of the report. (redorbit.com)
  • DNA methylation mediates imprinted gene expression by passing an epigenomic state across generations and differentially marking specific regulatory regions on maternal and paternal alleles. (rti.org)
  • Generally the expression of the mother's alleles of PLAGL1 and HYMAI are blocked or not expressed by DMR methylation and only the father's alleles of PLAG1 and HYMA1 are expressed. (wikipedia.org)