• genomic
  • The reason I am asking is that I occasionally encounter cases of possible incomplete digestion of restriction sites in genomic plant DNA with enzymes like HindIII (recognition sequence AAGCTT). (bio.net)
  • To determine whether statins alter genomic methylation of DNA as a mechanism for modulation of gene expression, we propose to (Specific Aim I) study methylation patterns by comparing statin-treated, infected and non-treated cells, followed by (Specific Aim II) correlation of such changes in methylation with statins' modulation of gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of transposable elements, aging and carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the genome of most plants, invertebrates, fungi or protists show "mosaic" methylation patterns, where only specific genomic elements are targeted, and they are characterized by the alternation of methylated and unmethylated domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • MethBase contents include single-CpG site resolution methylation levels for each CpG site in the genome of interest, annotation of regions of hypomethylation often associated with gene promoters, and annotation of allele-specific methylation associated with genomic imprinting. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of methylation
  • Lower levels of methylation have been linked to a variety of diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Her contribution to plant science includes her early work, cloning the first plant (METI), and her work demonstrating that DNA methylation (a biochemical process that modifies the plant's DNA) is essential for normal plant development and by reducing levels of methylation changes the plant's size and shape, flowering time, structure of the flowers and number of seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • She generated plants with reduced levels of DNA methylation using an antisense against METI, and determined the molecular basis for the abnormal phenotypes displayed by plants with reduced levels of methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter methylation
  • This patterning in promoter methylation transfers to the next generation when a cell divides, but is reset to nil in the zygote, thus allowing pluripotent capability which would obviously be damaging to a developed organism in most cases but prevents possibly useful development e.g. amputated limb regrowth. (biology-online.org)
  • Similarly, among 119 cases of mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers that lacked DNA repair gene PMS2 expression, 6 had a mutation in the PMS2 gene, while for 103 PMS2 was deficient because its pairing partner MLH1 was repressed due to promoter methylation (PMS2 protein is unstable in the absence of MLH1). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In tissue culture cells this process is highly specific and appears to involve an active mechanism which takes place in the absence of DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • The near-universal replacement of uracil by thymine in DNA, but not RNA, may have evolved as an error-control mechanism, to facilitate the removal of uracils generated by the spontaneous deamination of cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if silencing of a gene is initiated by another mechanism, this often is followed by methylation of CpG sites in the promoter CpG island to stabilize the silencing of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three mechanism that can cause 6q24-related TNDM, which includes the father's DNA being defected by uniparental isodisomy (UPD) on chromosome 6 and inherited duplication of 6q24 (inherited duplication is a small chromosomal change in which a very little amount of genetic material is copied in chromosome 6). (wikipedia.org)
  • Holliday described a mechanism of DNA-strand exchange that attempted to explain gene-conversion events that occur during meiosis in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylation of histone tails typically leads to weaker interactions between the histones and the DNA, which is associated with gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • heritable
  • Gene silencing mediated by promoter homology occur at the level of transcription and results in meiotically heritable alterations in methylation and gene activity, Plant J., 1996, 9(2): 183. (springer.com)
  • These mechanisms contribute to regulating gene expression without changing the sequence of the DNA and may be influenced by exposure to environmental factors and may be heritable from parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • QIAGEN
  • With unique DNA Protect technology, QIAGEN EpiTect Bisulfite Kits facilitate complete conversion and minimal degradation of the treated DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • changes
  • As opposed to the programmed changes in DNA methylation which occur in vivo, immortalized tissue culture cells demonstrate alterations in DNA modification which take place over a long time scale and which appear to be the result of selective pressures present during the growth of these cells in culture. (nih.gov)
  • This technology has been used to correlate DNA methylation to tumor type and gene expression, to measure cellular response to treatment with demethylating agents, and to assess changes in methylation state in relation to tumorigenesis, genetic imprinting, and exposure to environmental toxins (1). (qiagen.com)
  • In a study that correlated changes in DNA methylation (a chemical change that affects the level of gene expression) to changes in gene expression across the genome of the placenta (the small ovoid organ that nourishes the embryo in the uterus), Dr. Kjersti Aagaard and her colleagues found changes in methylation and gene expression of only 25 genes in non-smokers but 438 genes among smokers. (redorbit.com)
  • But in some diseases, cancers in particular, aberrant CpG methylation changes may occur, and both genomewide hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation in promoters of tumor suppressor genes can be observed. (qiagen.com)
  • 2002
  • Experimental Gerontology 37, 851-857 (2002) Early studies on recombination and DNA repair in Ustilago maydis. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • However this is a simplification: Bacteria use methylation for other reasons (e.g. origin of replication is heavily methylated), and so do Eukaryotes. (biology-online.org)
  • This misincorporated base will not be corrected during DNA replication as thymine is a DNA base. (wikipedia.org)
  • They wanted to use radioactive nucleotides to tag replicating DNA and then use photographic film to create a physical image of what happens during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using their method, they were able to measure the rate of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicated that chromosomal DNA contained many sections, which replicated independently, and that replication occurred in both directions at each section's origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • 4% methylated, but I don't know if that means it was below their limits of detection or they could see almost 4% methylation at those sites. (bio.net)
  • occur
  • Twenty-two DNA repair genes with hypermethylated promoters, and reduced or absent expression, were found to occur among 17 types of cancer, as listed in two review articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • for methylation deployment are different when one looks at the two kingdoms of life: in bacteria, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages, or phages) have unmethylated DNA, and so they are targeted for deletion by unmethylated-DNA-destroying enzymes (DNAses). (biology-online.org)
  • They also developed a method in which researchers add short "linkers" to DNA sequences and insert them into bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Nature paper from 1981 (Vol. 292, 860-862), where nearest neighbor analysis was used to show a high level of methylation at CG and CXG. (bio.net)
  • This example shows the analysis of a sequence with a CpN site (CpA in this case) in the first position, followed by 2 classical CpG sites (see figure New mode for analyzing CpN methylation ). (qiagen.com)
  • No mRNA of uidA was detected in these plants by Northern blotting analysis, and DNA methylation of promoter region was found. (springer.com)
  • Nested PCR allows you to obtain enough product for analysis (gel visualization, sequencing, cloning), or to save your precious modified DNA for more PCRs. (protocol-online.org)
  • They hoped to mix E. coli lac repressor with lac operator, crystallize it, and examine the protein-DNA binding of the crystals using high-resolution DNA methylation analysis. (wikipedia.org)