• proteins
  • As a result, cells without viral DNA failed to express proteins that are necessary to fight off an infection. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The virus consists of genetic material (DNA) inside an icosahedral protein coat (nucleocapsid), enveloped by other proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here, we provide the interaction network for all PYHIN proteins and define a function in sensing of viral DNA for the previously uncharacterized IFIX protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex), but which varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of phage T4 DNA elongation in phage-infected E. coli was also measured by autoradiography as 749 nucleotides per second during the period of exponential DNA increase at 37 °C. Phosphorylation means the posttranslational addition of a phosphate group to specific amino acids of proteins, and such modification can lead to a drastic change in the stability or the function of a protein in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into Cell: The virion attaches to the cell surface as the viral proteins come into contact with host cell glycosaminoglycan receptors and is taken into the cell through endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMPs are DNA-binding proteins that ensures that, as the host cell progresses through mitosis, the viral episomes are partitioned to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are essential in maintaining viral structure and for enzyme creation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protease inhibitors bind to the active site of the viral protease, which prevents the cleavage of the Gag and Gagpol proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this mutation occurs, transcription will not be halted, and viral proteins can be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • To achieve better hybridization and reproducibility, they used 50- to 100-bp sequences of human papilloma virus DNA as probes. (photonics.com)
  • 2. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 1 , wherein the said DNA comprises a chimaeric DNA construct comprising an expressible DNA in operable linkage with expression signals active in plant cells, wherein said expression signals are selected from the group consisting of promoter and termination sequences. (google.com)
  • 10. The recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein said DNA further comprises coding sequences of the 5′ region, 3′ region, or 5′ and 3′ region. (google.com)
  • An intriguing wrinkle to this study is the previously reported presence of sequences highly homologous to MMTV Env protein in the DNA of as many as 40% of human breast tumors, although a human homologue of MMTV has yet to be found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • RNA or DNA viral sequences can also be located in this fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequences encoding the HA's of RCN and VV (vaccinia virus) strain WR (western reserve) as well as HA's of VV, RCN, VPX (vole poxvirus), and SKP (skunk poxvirus) are rather divergent. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • 4. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene upon expression leads to resistance against plant pathogens selected from the group consisting of insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses. (google.com)
  • Evolutionary DNA remnants from thousands of years ago can help fight off modern viruses in people today. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Viruses contain DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid), never both. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In nature these immune system evolved to protect bacteria form viruses, but we are now repurposing these systems to cut viral DNA out of human cells infected with HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth order-Megavirales-for the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recently proposed clade is the Megavirales which includes the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raccoonpox virus (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae which consists of eight genera: Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus Vertebrates are the natural host of Chordopoxvirinae subfamily viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpesviruses represent a group of double-stranded DNA viruses distributed widely within the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Single-molecule spectroscopy does not require amplification, and thus is an attractive alternative for the detection and quantification of viral DNA. (photonics.com)
  • Researchers with the Ames Laboratory of the US Department of Energy and with Iowa State University, also in Ames, previously reported an improved single-molecule strategy using a flow system based on fluorescently labeled target DNA molecules passing through a thin fused-silica capillary. (photonics.com)
  • Researchers have described the use of surface hybridization with single-molecule spectroscopy for the detection of viral DNA such as human papilloma virus (HPV). (photonics.com)
  • They hybridized target DNA to probes covalently bound on a glass surface -- much as is done in DNA arrays but engineered specifically for single-molecule counting, said co-author Ji-Young Lee. (photonics.com)
  • The researchers determined the human papilloma virus contents for the cell line extracts based on the average molecule counts for each image, and found that all were in good agreement with known viral loads. (photonics.com)
  • 3. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein the said expressible DNA comprises a structural gene. (google.com)
  • 5. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 4 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a polypeptide that is toxic to insects and/or their larvae. (google.com)
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • 8. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a lytic peptide. (google.com)
  • Artwork of an enveloped virus behind a test tube containing a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Using sophisticated genetic sequencing and gene-editing techniques, Elde and his colleagues deleted certain viral remnants from human DNA and found that, without them, cells infected with a pathogen could not fully respond to interferon, a protein signal that jump-starts our immune responses. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Homomeric ring-ATPases of the ASCE family are responsible for a variety of important cellular functions, ranging from DNA translocation to protein degradation. (aps.org)
  • Our results highlight the value of integrative proteomics in deducing protein function and establish IFIX as an antiviral DNA sensor important for mounting immune responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It has been suggested to mediate protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions during chromatin organization and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • By designing a cell-based inducible system and integrating microscopy, immunoaffinity capture, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identify over 300 PYHIN interactions reflective of diverse functions, including DNA damage response, transcription regulation, intracellular signaling, and antiviral response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • plasmid
  • Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific conditions of the process according to the invention and the transgenic plant products obtainable in accordance with the said process. (google.com)
  • genes
  • DNA contains sections called genes, which encode an organism's genetic information. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This study puts the spotlight on a potential new mechanism for virus-induced breast cell transformation, which has largely been attributed to the integration of viral DNA into locations that trigger the expression of host cancer-causing genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Although the first ORF in these gammaherpesviruses have oncogenic potential, other viral genes may also play a role in viral transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • With a featured publication in the Aug. 7 issue of Science, Montana State University researchers have made a significant contribution to the understanding of a new field of DNA research, with the acronym CRISPR, that holds enormous promise for fighting infectious diseases and genetic disorders. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • displacement
  • It is being increasingly used in molecular biology for multiple displacement DNA amplification procedures, and has a number of features that make it particularly suitable for this application. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • The panels here represent samples with 0 (A), 10 -4 (B), 10 -3 (C), 10 -2 (D), 10 (E) and 1 percent human papilloma virus DNA. (photonics.com)
  • The virus may be contained within inclusion bodies and mature by budding through the membrane of the host cell, giving rise to a large amount of viral shedding in a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA studies suggest that this virus and the human virus are very closely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis can also be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • RCN is a double-stranded DNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Whereas conventional surface hybridization detection uses only a single probe, the method described by Lee and his colleagues, Jiangwei Li and Edward S. Yeung, incorporates a second probe, and the target DNA is sandwiched between this probe and the surface. (photonics.com)
  • Sensitive detection requires a strong lysis and pure DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • cell
  • The structure of this biological machine is conceptually similar to an engineer's blueprint, and it explains how each of the parts in this complex assemble into a functional complex that efficiently identifies viral DNA when it enters the cell," Wiedenheft says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They can also block the fusion of the viral and cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon class, and most preferably into plants of the family Gramineae, using suitable transfer microorganisms. (google.com)
  • To determine the mechanism of this packaging motor, we used a novel high-resolution optical tweezers to observe the discrete increments of DNA packaged by a single bacteriophage. (aps.org)
  • hybridization
  • In addition, the DNA was sheared easily in the washing steps, and there was reduced fluorescence from the quantum dots after overnight hybridization. (photonics.com)
  • They knew that, under the conditions that they used, DNA would coil randomly on the slide surface after hybridization, leading to less shearing and more robust performance of the tag throughout the hybridization step. (photonics.com)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Duck plague (also known as duck viral enteritis) is a worldwide disease caused by duck herpesvirus 1 (anatid herpesvirus 1) of the family Herpesviridae that causes acute disease with high mortality rates in flocks of ducks, geese and swans. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • In metagenomic analysis, DNA data is sequenced and ran through multiple bioinformatic algorithms which, based on what is being analyzed, pull out certain important patterns and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)