• sequences
  • 2. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 1 , wherein the said DNA comprises a chimaeric DNA construct comprising an expressible DNA in operable linkage with expression signals active in plant cells, wherein said expression signals are selected from the group consisting of promoter and termination sequences. (google.com)
  • 10. The recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein said DNA further comprises coding sequences of the 5′ region, 3′ region, or 5′ and 3′ region. (google.com)
  • An intriguing wrinkle to this study is the previously reported presence of sequences highly homologous to MMTV Env protein in the DNA of as many as 40% of human breast tumors, although a human homologue of MMTV has yet to be found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To test whether the pieces of viral DNA were indeed important for immunity, the scientists used the gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 in cell culture to remove one by one several of these viral sequences, each located near known immune genes. (utah.edu)
  • The scientists created specific pieces of DNA and then attached them to gold nanoparticles and viral particles, choosing the sequences and positioning them exactly to force the particles to arrange themselves into a crystal lattice. (redorbit.com)
  • RNA or DNA viral sequences can also be located in this fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequences encoding the HA's of RCN and VV (vaccinia virus) strain WR (western reserve) as well as HA's of VV, RCN, VPX (vole poxvirus), and SKP (skunk poxvirus) are rather divergent. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Gardasil® is a quadrivalent HPV protein-based vaccine containing genotype-specific L1 capsid proteins of HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11 in the form of virus-like particles as the active ingredient, which are produced by a DNA recombinant technology in yeast. (blogspot.com)
  • NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex), but which varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of phage T4 DNA elongation in phage-infected E. coli was also measured by autoradiography as 749 nucleotides per second during the period of exponential DNA increase at 37 °C. Phosphorylation means the posttranslational addition of a phosphate group to specific amino acids of proteins, and such modification can lead to a drastic change in the stability or the function of a protein in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into Cell: The virion attaches to the cell surface as the viral proteins come into contact with host cell glycosaminoglycan receptors and is taken into the cell through endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMPs are DNA-binding proteins that ensures that, as the host cell progresses through mitosis, the viral episomes are partitioned to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are essential in maintaining viral structure and for enzyme creation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protease inhibitors bind to the active site of the viral protease, which prevents the cleavage of the Gag and Gagpol proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this mutation occurs, transcription will not be halted, and viral proteins can be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Differences between terminal region patterns of DNA restriction enzyme digests of different RCN isolates suggest that varied passaging has promoted the advancement of polymorphisms since the virus was first isolated in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isolated enzyme has no intrinsic helicase activity, but may carry out an equivalent function by way of its strong binding to single stranded DNA, particularly in preference to double stranded nucleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme facilitates the "debranching" of double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme contains a highly conserved region called the catalytic core, which is essential for binding to the virally encoded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations occur in the enzymes that phosphorylate the drug and activate it: in the case of herpes simplex, resistance to acyclovir arises thanks to a mutation affecting the viral enzyme thymidine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsids
  • The structure "" a distinctive mix of hard, metallic nanoparticles and organic viral pieces known as capsids, linked by the very stuff of life, DNA "" marks a remarkable step in scientists' ability to combine an assortment of materials to create infinitesimal devices. (redorbit.com)
  • viruses
  • 4. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene upon expression leads to resistance against plant pathogens selected from the group consisting of insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses. (google.com)
  • In nature these immune system evolved to protect bacteria form viruses, but we are now repurposing these systems to cut viral DNA out of human cells infected with HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Salt Lake City) - About eight percent of our DNA is viral in origin: remnants of ancient battles between infectious viruses and our ancestors. (utah.edu)
  • Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR , they snipped out several endogenous viruses from the cell's DNA. (slashdot.org)
  • DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth order-Megavirales-for the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recently proposed clade is the Megavirales which includes the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raccoonpox virus (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae which consists of eight genera: Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus Vertebrates are the natural host of Chordopoxvirinae subfamily viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpesviruses represent a group of double-stranded DNA viruses distributed widely within the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • 3. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein the said expressible DNA comprises a structural gene. (google.com)
  • 5. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 4 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a polypeptide that is toxic to insects and/or their larvae. (google.com)
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • 8. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a lytic peptide. (google.com)
  • The mechanisms behind such drug actions on modulation of gene expression (both viral and cellular) remain unclear. (nova.edu)
  • At a molecular level, methylation of DNA plays important roles in regulating overall gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • To determine whether statins alter genomic methylation of DNA as a mechanism for modulation of gene expression, we propose to (Specific Aim I) study methylation patterns by comparing statin-treated, infected and non-treated cells, followed by (Specific Aim II) correlation of such changes in methylation with statins' modulation of gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • Further, when cells lacking the viral DNA element near the AIM2 immune defense gene were infected with virus, their ability to execute an effective immune response was greatly reduced. (utah.edu)
  • A central problem faced by the gene therapy field is the lack of efficient non-toxic methods of delivery of DNA-based macromolecules, such as antisense oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA in vivo. (ubc.ca)
  • BZLF1 (also known as Zta, EB1) is an immediate-early viral gene of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of the Herpes Virus Family, which induces cancers and infects primarily the B-cells of 95% of the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • What genetic changes (mutagenesis) could occur should the residual HPV DNA enter and begin reproducing in a human cell? (sanevax.org)
  • Mutations
  • Furthermore, Non-B DNA conformations are known through Dr. Lee's research to be associated with genetic abnormalities, as well as mutations which cause 70 serious diseases in human beings. (blogspot.com)
  • genes
  • This study puts the spotlight on a potential new mechanism for virus-induced breast cell transformation, which has largely been attributed to the integration of viral DNA into locations that trigger the expression of host cancer-causing genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We herein looked by optimized single PCR in different batches of Gardasil® from France for HPV L1 DNA using MY09/MY11 degenerate and nondegenerate primers, for HPV E2 and E6 DNA genes, and for contaminating Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the first ORF in these gammaherpesviruses have oncogenic potential, other viral genes may also play a role in viral transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific conditions of the process according to the invention and the transgenic plant products obtainable in accordance with the said process. (google.com)
  • Recombinant DNA' is a DNA that has been artificially attached to DNA from another species or a man-made DNA construct, in other words, genetically modified. (sanevax.org)
  • Concerned that recombinant DNA, if present, might have triggered some of the autoimmune-based inflammatory disorders and malignant tumors observed among children/young women after receiving Gardasil™ vaccinations, medical professionals and vaccine safety advocates from the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, France, and Poland donated samples of Gardasil™ currently distributed in their countries to be examined. (sanevax.org)
  • If recombinant HPV DNA attached to aluminum adjuvant enters a person's blood, how long will it remain there? (sanevax.org)
  • SANE Vax believes the FDA should have required Merck to test for, evaluate and quantify the risks of residual recombinant HPV DNA in Gardasil™ before granting approval for marketing the vaccine. (sanevax.org)
  • Not only has another independent laboratory confirmed the findings of Dr. Lee in every Gardasil sample tested from France, this lab used a different and less 'sensitive' methodology to arrive at the same conclusion regarding Gardasil recombinant (genetically engineered) HPV DNA fragment contamination. (blogspot.com)
  • protein
  • Homomeric ring-ATPases of the ASCE family are responsible for a variety of important cellular functions, ranging from DNA translocation to protein degradation. (aps.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • We now have a precise molecular blueprint of a surveillance machine that is critical for viral defense," Wiedenheft adds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Dr. Sin Hang Lee, a pathologist at the Milford Hospital pathology laboratory well-known for using cutting-edge DNA sequencing for molecular diagnoses, [i] was initially contracted to examine a single sample of Gardasil for possible contamination. (sanevax.org)
  • virions
  • RCN infected Strain 143 human osteosarcoma cells produce cytoplasmic A-type inclusions (ATIs) where a number of mature virions are lodged to maintain viral infectivity even if the cell lyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • aluminum adjuvant
  • Any DNA can be adsorbed (attached) to aluminum adjuvant. (sanevax.org)
  • After conducting extensive research, Dr. Lee found that in 100% of lab samples tested, fragments of HPV-11, HPV-16, and HPV-18 L1 DNA firmly attached to Merck's proprietary aluminum adjuvant. (blogspot.com)
  • Dr. Lee also found that the HPV DNA fragments were not only bound to Merck's proprietary aluminum adjuvant, but they had also adopted a non-B conformation, thereby creating a novel (new) chemical compound of unknown toxicity. (blogspot.com)
  • fragments
  • Independent Lab Confirms Viral DNA in Merck VaccineMerck can say that Gardasil contains 'no viral DNA' all they want, but Dr. Sin Hang Lee had reported to the FDA just over two years ago that the vaccine contains fragments of DNA that shouldn't be in something we give young women - so why is Gardasil still on the market? (blogspot.com)
  • Recently Lee SH showed that Gardasil® contained fragments of HPV-11 or HPV-18 DNA, evidenced by nested PCR, of unknown significance [J Inorg Biochem. (blogspot.com)
  • In-house quantitative single PCR using as external calibrator serial dilutions of HPV-16 DNA extracted from CaSki cell line allowed estimating the load of residual HPV DNA fragments in vaccine ampoules. (blogspot.com)
  • blueprint
  • The structure of this biological machine is conceptually similar to an engineer's blueprint, and it explains how each of the parts in this complex assemble into a functional complex that efficiently identifies viral DNA when it enters the cell," Wiedenheft says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • cells
  • Radioactive precursors of DNA and RNA, [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-uridine respectively, may be introduced to living cells to determine the timing of several phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune cells that have detected a virus may also release anti-viral factors such as interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • have detected the presence of viral DNA in ocular lymphoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Duck plague (also known as duck viral enteritis) is a worldwide disease caused by duck herpesvirus 1 (anatid herpesvirus 1) of the family Herpesviridae that causes acute disease with high mortality rates in flocks of ducks, geese and swans. (wikipedia.org)
  • contamination
  • SANE Vax Inc. has sent a letter to Dr. Margaret Hamburg, FDA Commissioner to inform her of the contamination and request FDA investigation into the extent of HPV DNA contamination in the Gardasil HPV4 vaccine currently on the market. (sanevax.org)
  • clinical
  • Two years later, her blood was tested by a local clinical laboratory and found to be positive for HPV DNA. (sanevax.org)
  • residual
  • SaneVax believes the FDA should require every lot of Gardasil™ be tested for residual HPV DNA prior to shipment. (sanevax.org)
  • novel
  • The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon class, and most preferably into plants of the family Gramineae, using suitable transfer microorganisms. (google.com)
  • To determine the mechanism of this packaging motor, we used a novel high-resolution optical tweezers to observe the discrete increments of DNA packaged by a single bacteriophage. (aps.org)
  • Gardasil
  • At the time of Gardasil™ approval, both Merck and the FDA represented that there was no viral DNA in the vaccine. (sanevax.org)
  • Preliminary data showed the presence of contaminating HPV L1 DNA in all tested different batches of Gardasil® vaccine from France. (blogspot.com)
  • found
  • Wild DNA' is any DNA found in nature. (sanevax.org)
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)