• Genome
  • The double FISH analysis of two repetitive DNAs (a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans collected at the south (Granada and Málaga provinces) and south-east (Albacete and Murcia provinces) of the Iberian Peninsula has shown their widespread presence throughout the whole genome as well as extensive variation among populations. (springer.com)
  • Southern hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis of individual randomly cloned repeats shows that these satellite DNA families are highly abundant in the genome, are composed of unique repeats, and are species-specific. (umd.edu)
  • Early in her career Frommer investigated the molecular biology of "satellite DNAs" in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fraction of the mouse genome that is derived from islands of nonmethylated, CpG-rich DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group known as the pleolipoviruses, although having a similar genome organisation, differ in having either single or double stranded DNA genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbiotic relationship between a satellite and a helper virus to catalyze the replication of a satellite viral genome is also dependent on the host to provide components like replicases to carry out replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence of Satellite RNA is said to have come from either the genome of the host or its co-infecting agents, and any vectors leading to transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microsatellites make up approximately three percent of the human genome, or more than one million fragments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is a single circular single strand DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Singh founded various institutes and laboratories in India, including the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics in 1995, Laboratory for the Conservation of Endangered Species (LaCONES) in 1998, and Genome Foundation in 2004, aiming to diagnose and treat genetic disorders affecting the Indian population, in particular the under-privileged people residing in rural India. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • The name "satellite DNA" refers to the phenomenon that repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is best known for developing a protocol to map DNA methylation by bisulphite genomic sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research led to the observation of methylation patterns at CpG dinucleotides in sequenced genomic repeated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • She and her PhD student Margaret Gardiner-Garden were able to identify these genomic components by DNA sequence characteristics alone, without prior knowledge of methylation status, and gave them the name "CpG islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular study focused on changes in expression levels by leaving portions of the existing genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The repeats do not have identifiable core elements or substructures that are similar in all three families, and most interspecific sequence similarity is confined to homopolymeric runs of A and T. Satellite DNA from N. marginatus and N. americanus show single-base-pair indels among repeats, but single-nucleotide substitutions characterize most of the repeat variability. (umd.edu)
  • Hypermethylation occurs when a methyl group is added to a DNA nucleotide, resulting in gene silencing, thus yielding MSI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Before his term as Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University, he also served as director of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) from May 1998 to July 2009 and Officer on Special Duty (OSD) of Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, India in 1995-1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In 1986, the first hammerhead ribozymes were found in some RNA plant pathogens like viroids and viral satellites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite viral particles should not be confused with satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A satellite virus important to human health that demonstrates the need for co-infection to replicate and infect within a host is Hepatitis D. Hepatitis D (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by an Mario Rizzetto and is unique from Hepatitis A, B, and C because it requires viral particles from Hepatitis B to replicate and infect liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis Delta Virus is found all over the globe but most Prevalent in Africa, the Middle East and Southern Italy Satellite viruses- satellites are classified as sub viral agents in that they require the help for co-infection therefore they do not have their own taxonomic classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACs allow for delivery of more DNA (including promoters and copy-number variation) than is possible with viral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • centromeric
  • Similar results were obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis of a zebu-specific mutation in the repeat unit of satellite 1.711b. analysis of individulas from 20 African cattle breeds indicate that the centromeric satellites of the sanga breeds are of the taurine type and that several East-African zebu breeds are hybrids between taurine and zebu. (cgiar.org)
  • microsatellite
  • On southern blots hybridized to a satellite III probe, relative intensities of Hinf1 fragments correlated with the taurine-zebu composition in hybrid animals as deduced from AFLP genotyping of the same animals and previous data on microsatellite allele frequencies. (cgiar.org)
  • For several years, gene mappers have used DNA signposts called microsatellite repeats as markers to delineate these sections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the condition of genetic hypermutability (predisposition to mutation) that results from impaired DNA mismatch repair (MMR). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • These satellite RFLP or SFLP, markers provide a fast method to screen the genetic makeup of African cattle. (cgiar.org)
  • 1. A short sequence of DNA consisting of multiple repetitions of a set of two to nine base pairs, used as a genetic marker when individuals differ in the number of repetitions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite viruses, which are most commonly associated with plants, but are also found in mammals, arthropods, and bacteria, have the components to make their own protein shell to enclose their genetic material, but rely on a helper virus to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • In 1998 Frommer realised that it should be possible to amplify the products of a DNA deamination reaction and distinguish methylated and unmethylated molecules by dideoxy-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth order-Megavirales-for the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recently proposed clade is the Megavirales which includes the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the usage of this term remains controversial due to the lack of fundamental differences between virophages and classical satellite viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virophages or satellite viruses? (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses were earlier known as DNA 1 components. (wikipedia.org)
  • fingerprint
  • Although the length of these microsatellites is highly variable from person to person and contributes to the individual DNA "fingerprint", each individual has microsatellites of a set length. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The proteins involved in MMR correct polymerase errors by forming a complex that binds to the mismatched section of DNA, excises the error, and inserts the correct sequence in its place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, DNA polymerase slips, creating a temporary insertion-deletion loop, which is usually recognized by MMR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these proteins are conserved between eukaryotic species, including a specialized histone H3 variant (called CENP-A or CenH3) which helps the kinetochore associate with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deepest layer in the kinetochore is the inner plate, which is organized on a chromatin structure containing nucleosomes presenting a specialized histone (named CENP-A, which substitutes histone H3 in this region), auxiliary proteins (= helper proteins) and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eupatorium
  • Sequence analysis showed that they had highest sequence identity with DNAβ of Eupatorium yellow vein virus (AJ438938) (44.0, 43.9 and 45.6% identity). (deepdyve.com)
  • variation
  • We describe satellite DNA variation that detects hybridization of Bos indicus (Zebu or indicine cattle) and Bos taurus (taurine cattle) in African cattle populations. (cgiar.org)
  • RNAs
  • Named for the resemblance of early secondary structure diagrams to a hammerhead shark, hammerhead ribozymes RNAs were originally discovered in two classes of plant virus-like RNAs: satellite RNAs and viroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • repeats
  • The difference in how many of the repeats is present in the region (length of the region) is the basis for DNA fingerprinting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method was used to localise satellite repeats very precisely. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • All TIF1 family members have been reported to repress basal and activated transcription when tethered to DNA through fusion to an heterologous DNA-binding domain. (biologists.org)
  • humans
  • Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long[citation needed], and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • Covalently closed circular DNA molecules were isolated from Plasmodium falciparum total DNA by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl gradients containing either ethidium bromide or 2',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists discovered that the first satellite had the components to make its own protein shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few years later in 1969, scientists discovered another symbiotic relationship with the tobacco ringspot neopvirus (TobRV) and another satellite virus. (wikipedia.org)