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  • genes
  • Glyphosate is the herbicide known commonly as Roundup is widely used among farmers to help with weed control and recombinant genes in the agricultural crops allow them to grow without being affected by the herbicide. (news-medical.net)
  • Cloning and expression of viral genes in mammalian cells was made possible by the construction of shuttle plasmid vectors which carry the origins of DNA replication from bacteria and/or mammalian viruses. (springer.com)
  • The complete DNA sequence is scanned by computer to find the positions of open reading frames (ORFs), or prospective genes. (britannica.com)
  • The students will become familiar with the analysis of disease causing genes, and DNA fingerprinting and forensics. (rug.nl)
  • The basic repositories of biological information flow, called genes, consist of molecules of DNA. (springer.com)
  • Molecular biologists attempt to understand the molecular basis for the flow and regulation of genetic information by using recombinant DNA methods to isolate and analyze genes. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we will discuss methods to analyze genes identified through recombinant DNA technologies. (mit.edu)
  • Two main underlying concepts of this tradition were that genes consisted of DNA and that DNA encoded information that determined the processes of replication and protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this similarity in protein sequence, scientists can cut DNA at these common protein points and add other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in 2015 by scientists from Ghent University and the International Potato Center found that the genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium, with genes being actively expressed by the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the wake of the 1973 report of the first use of recombinant DNA techniques to introduce genes from one species into another, Singer was among the first to call attention to the possible risks of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • By identifying specific genetic markers for the genes of interest in a recombinant inbred strain, the amount of interaction between these genes and their relation to the observed phenotype can be determined through complex statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both strains of P. syringae occur naturally, but recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the synthetic removal or alteration of specific genes, enabling the creation of the ice-minus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic engineering, pieces of DNA (genes) are introduced into a host by a variety of techniques, one of the earliest being the use of a virus vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asilomar Con
  • The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA was an influential conference organized by Paul Berg to discuss the potential biohazards and regulation of biotechnology, held in February 1975 at a conference center at Asilomar State Beach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA took place at the Asilomar Conference Center on California's Monterey Peninsula in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is known for her contributions to solving the genetic code, her role in the ethical and regulatory debates on recombinant DNA techniques (including the organization of the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA), and her leadership of Carnegie Institution of Washington. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was a chairperson of the 1973 Gordon Conference on Nucleic Acids, where the possible public health risks of the technique were discussed, and she helped to organize the 1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA that resulted in guidelines for dealing with the largely unknown risks of the technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase chain re
  • The DNA test uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect presence of HIV genetic material. (news-medical.net)
  • Finally, you will learn about the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method of amplifying DNA, and when to use this technique. (mit.edu)
  • It is one of two most widely used methods, along with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), used to direct the replication of any specific DNA sequence chosen by the experimentalist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • DNA microinjection does not have a high success rate (roughly 2% of all injected subjects), even if the new DNA is incorporated in the genome, if it is not accepted by the germ-line the new traits will not appear in their offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • She focused on LINE-1, a retrotransposon found in mammalian genomes that is scattered in thousands of places in the human genome, which she concluded is capable of movement and insertion into new places on the chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The antibody test uses a recombinant HIV protein to measure antibodies in the body that proliferate when there is a HIV infection. (news-medical.net)
  • There are 3 types of RNA: tRNA (transfer RNA - active in assembly of polypeptide chains), rRNA (ribosomal RNA - part of the structure of ribosomes) and mRNA (messenger RNA - the product of DNA transcription and used for translation of a gene into a protein). (wikibooks.org)
  • Next, you will learn how a recombinant cDNA library is constructed, and how it is used to identify a gene of interest by the protein made. (mit.edu)
  • When recombinant DNA encoding a protein is introduced into a host organism, the recombinant protein is not necessarily produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the DNA may simply be replicated without expression, or it may be transcribed and translated and a recombinant protein is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riggs went on to do postdoctoral work at the Salk Institute with Melvin Cohn from 1966 to 1969, studying protein-DNA interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hoped to mix E. coli lac repressor with lac operator, crystallize it, and examine the protein-DNA binding of the crystals using high-resolution DNA methylation analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • For nearly two decades after the elucidation of the crystallographic structure of DNA, molecular geneticists were largely confined to the study of simple microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • Molecular cloning is the laboratory process used to create recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA within a living cell, while PCR replicates DNA in the test tube, free of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The choice of vector for molecular cloning depends on the choice of host organism, the size of the DNA to be cloned, and whether and how the foreign DNA is to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thermodynamics and kinetics of molecular recognition in enzymes, antibodies, DNA hybridization, bio-conjugation/bio-immobilization and bioseparations are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • techniques
  • Recombinant DNA has been used in the development of the most common diagnostic techniques for HIV. (news-medical.net)
  • The Northern blot, also known as the RNA blot, is one of the blotting techniques used to transfer DNA and RNA onto a carrier for sorting and identification. (wikibooks.org)
  • For both techniques, the hybridization probe for detection can be made from either DNA or RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • The main difference between the two techniques is that the northern Blot is performed to study gene expression by analyzing RNA instead of DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is still another object of this invention to provide methods of producing rennin, prorennin or pre-prorennin using recombinant DNA techniques. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • By the end of this unit, you will understand some basic techniques of recombinant DNA technologies, and some of their applications. (mit.edu)
  • With the ice nucleating recombinant identified, amplify the ice gene with techniques such as polymerase chain reactions (PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • As graduate students at Caltech, he and Joel A. Huberman collaborated on work that later led to a classic paper on mammalian DNA replication, which was published in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • They wanted to use radioactive nucleotides to tag replicating DNA and then use photographic film to create a physical image of what happens during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using their method, they were able to measure the rate of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicated that chromosomal DNA contained many sections, which replicated independently, and that replication occurred in both directions at each section's origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • manufacture
  • The ability to manufacture recombinant blood clotting factor VIII allows larger quantities to be used in practice and reduces the need for blood donation to obtain the factor naturally. (news-medical.net)
  • advances
  • These concepts were embodied in the model of DNA proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick, and further research on the Watson-Crick model yielded theoretical advances that were reflected in new capacities to manipulate DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligase
  • The DNA segments can be combined by using a variety of methods, such as restriction enzyme/ligase cloning or Gibson assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • The more common side effects of preparations containing FSH and LH are: Mild bloating Pain, swelling, or irritation injection site Rash at injection site or other part of body Stomach pain or pelvic pain Preparations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mainly include those derived from the urine of menopausal women, as well as recombinant preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study reported that users of the purified urinary FSH preparation Bravelle experienced less injection site pain compared to the recombinant preparation Follistim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generic (human) chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP Brands Pregnyl (Merck/Schering-Plough) Follutein Profasi Novarel Generic choriogonadotropin alfa for injection (recombinant human Chorionic Gonadotropin, r-hCG). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Recombinant DNA of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen is produced in yeast cells to be included in the vaccine. (news-medical.net)
  • In a transformation reaction, depending on the transformation efficiency, only one in a several million to billion cells may take up DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells containing the desired DNA are incorporated into the host's embryo, resulting in a chimeric animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foreign DNA becomes a permanent feature of the host, and is replicated and passed on to daughter cells along with the rest of its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Recombinant human growth hormone is used to support normal growth and development for patients with malfunctions in the pituitary gland. (news-medical.net)
  • In 1978 he was chairman of the organizing committee for the International Symposium on DNA repair, Mutation and Human III Health held in Ottawa, Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEUPOGEN (filgrastim) is the name for recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • create
  • For these reasons, the other investigators feared that the final step would create cloned SV40 DNA that might escape into the environment and infect laboratory workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • With the decreasing price of DNA sequencing and synthesis, the ease of genetic engineering (CRISPR, molecular cloning), and the increase in computational capacity, we have reached a stage where creating an engineered cell, and making it do what you want is a possibility. (wordpress.com)
  • Here, DNA fragmentation is a molecular genetic technique that permits researchers to use recombinant DNA technology to prepare large numbers of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • A restriction site is typically a palindromic sequence, which means that the restriction-site sequence is the same on each strand of DNA when read in the 5' to 3' direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence of NE-tag is as follows: 5' ACC AAA gAA AAC CCg CgT AgC AAC Cag gAA gAA AgC TAT gAT gAT AAC gAA AgC 3' The corresponding amino acid sequence is: TKENPRSNQEESYDDNES (Thr-Lys-Glu-Asn-Pro-Arg-Ser-Asn-Gln-Glu-Glu-Ser-Tyr-Asp-Asp-Asn-Glu-Ser) US 8927225 EP 2328909 CN 102203119 Ho, Philip WL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Families of recombinant inbred strains numbering from 25 to 5000 are often used to map the locations of DNA sequence differences (quantitative trait loci) that contributed to differences in phenotype in model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • He studies the evolution of cis-regulatory elements (pieces of non-coding DNA) which help to regulate gene expression in developing embryos, using the fruit fly Drosophila as the model organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recombinant inbred strain (or recombinant inbred line) is an organism with chromosomes that incorporate an essentially permanent set of recombination events between chromosomes inherited from two or more inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • molecular
  • The subsequent rise in molecular engineering prowess - molecular cloning, recombinant technologies, gene editing, inducible promoters, light-sensitive promoters - has equipped man with the ability to engineer synthetic signalling pathways in the cell. (wordpress.com)
  • Human
  • Recombinant A2/B5 heterodimeric glycoproteins, purified using cation exchange and size fractionation chromatography, activated human TSH receptors, but not LH and FSH receptors, and showed high affinity to TSH receptors in a radioligand receptor assay. (jci.org)
  • The novel vaccine consists of a recombinant DNA vaccine co-expressing human GM-CSF and non-infectious HIV virus-likeparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancestim is a recombinant methionyl human stem cell factor, branded by Amgen as StemGen. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • In order for DNA cloning to be completed, it is necessary to obtain discrete, small regions of an organism's DNA that constitute specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 4.7 million nucleotides in length and ~300 genes the locus had resisted the effects of recombination, either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire haplotype, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes are endonucleases produced by bacteria that typically recognize small base pair sequences (called restriction sites) and then cleave both strands of DNA at this site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomes of recombinant inbred strains typically consist of alternating haplotypes of highly variable length that are inherited intact from the parental strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • Many restriction enzymes make staggered cuts in the two DNA strands at their recognition site, which generates fragments with a single stranded "tail" that overhangs at both ends, called a sticky end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction enzymes can also make straight cuts in the two DNA strands at their recognition site, which generates blunt ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • During 2010, the study was expanded from 225 to 300 participants to include an arm gathering additional data on three MVA injections, without the use of the DNA component, which is an addition to the original arm testing two DNA priming and two MVA boosting injections. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the initial motivations to use recombinant inbred strains is that expensive genotype data can be accumulated and reused - greatly simplifying mapping studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • Somewhat larger families of recombinant inbred strains were generated concurrently by Benjamin Taylor to map Mendelian and other major effect loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • While page for widespread digital amplifications through T-DNA problem, we even titled a l of complex harsh scholars that was a unnecessarily such form: a multiagent cycle of fatty way at the non-local tribe. (dataprintusa.com)
  • create
  • This is how Craig Venter created the first synthetic cell, assembling chemically-synthesized oligos into DNA chunks that were recombined in yeast to create an entire synthetic genome that was transplanted into a recipient bacterial cell that took on characteristics defined by the synthetic genome. (wordpress.com)
  • For this reason, most restriction enzymes used in DNA cloning make staggered cuts in the DNA strands to create sticky ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • HVTN 205 Study-In early 2009, the HVTN began enrolling patients in a preventative Phase 2 clinical trial sponsored by GeoVax Labs, Inc. This study is investigating a prime-boost approach using GeoVax's combination DNA/MVA vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of organisms - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Zea mays (maize), barley, Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • For an RI strain to be useful for mapping purposes, the approximate position of recombinations along each chromosome need to be well defined either in terms of centimorgan or DNA basepair position. (wikipedia.org)