• Mutation
  • According to the prevailing accepted theory of carcinogenesis, the somatic mutation theory, mutations in DNA and epimutations that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes by disrupting the programming regulating the processes, upsetting the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma
  • In other examples, UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma, helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and contributes to gastric cancer, and the Aspergillus metabolite, aflatoxin, is a DNA damaging agent that is causative in liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation status
  • Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across different biological samples and regarded as possible functional regions involved in gene transcriptional regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Cancer cells are selectively sensitive to the generation of these DNA lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • UDG is crucial in DNA repair, without it these mutations may lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells "global hypomethylation" due to disruption in DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) may promote mitotic recombination and chromosome rearrangement, ultimately resulting in aneuploidy when the chromosomes fail to separate properly during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer alters the DNA of cells and the mutated genetic material is passed on to daughter cells, resulting in neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cytometric determinations of cellular cytokeratin, vimentin, and DNA were performed before and after incubation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Necrosis results in the release of cellular DNA, which adheres in patches to the walls of blood vessels, showing as intensely basophilic material on hematoxylin-eosin stain. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphodiester
  • Topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that block the action of topoisomerase (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monofunctional glycosylases have only glycosylase activity, whereas bifunctional glycosylases also possess AP lyase activity that permits them to cut the phosphodiester bond of DNA, creating a single-strand break without the need for an AP endonuclease. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Only poly-ubiquitination on defined lysines, mostly on K48 and K29, is related to degradation by the proteasome (referred to as the "molecular kiss of death"), while other polyubiquitinations (e.g. on K63, K11, K6 and M1) and monoubiquitinations may regulate processes such as endocytic trafficking, inflammation, translation and DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Many of these changes are mutations, or changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • DNA platination in J82 and UROtsa cells was higher by PEG-HPPt than by cisplatin, whereas there was no significant difference between the two cell lines. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Some scientists have identified these mutations as deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cells found in neoplasms and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four different uracil-DNA glycosylase activities have been identified in mammalian cells, including UNG, SMUG1, TDG, and MBD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current evidence suggests that, in human cells, TDG and SMUG1 are the major enzymes responsible for the repair of the U:G mispairs caused by spontaneous cytosine deamination, whereas uracil arising in DNA through dU misincorporation is mainly dealt with by UNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neoplasm is a tissue whose cells have lost its normal differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Indenoisoquinolines (green) form a ternary complexes of Top1 (brown) and DNA (blue) (Pommier et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Depending on the nature of the myeloproliferative neoplasm, diagnostic tests may include red cell mass determination (for polycythemia), bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy, arterial oxygen saturation and carboxyhaemoglobin level, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase level, vitamin B12 (or B12 binding capacity), serum urate or direct sequencing of the patient's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The structure of human UNG in complex with DNA revealed that, like other glycosylases, it flips the target nucleotide out of the double helix and into the active site pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The genomics era began in the 1990s, with the generation of DNA sequences of many organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain areas of alleles have the tendency to separate less frequently than normal random segregation, which leads to long ranges of repeated DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-strand
  • Top1 generates DNA single-strand breaks that allow rotation of the cleaved strand around the double helix axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry represents various uracil-DNA glycosylases and related DNA glycosylases (EC), such as uracil-DNA glycosylase, thermophilic uracil-DNA glycosylase, G:T/U mismatch-specific DNA glycosylase (Mug), and single-strand selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors
  • Use of topoisomerase inhibitors for antineoplastic treatments may lead to secondary neoplasms because of DNA damaging properties of the compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, treatment with Top1 inhibitors, such as the camptothecins, stabilize the cleavable complexes, prevent DNA religation and induce lethal DNA strand breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • repair
  • DNA Repair (Amst. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DNA glycosylases are a family of enzymes involved in base excision repair, classified under EC number EC 3.2.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Base excision repair is the mechanism by which damaged bases in DNA are removed and replaced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their role in base excision repair, DNA glycosylase enzymes have been implicated in the repression of gene silencing in A. thaliana, N. tabacum and other plants by active demethylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs through multiple mutations which affect the DNA-mismatch-repair pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • Folic acid is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolise amino acids which are required for cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The Top1-DNA intermediates, known as cleavage complexes, are transient and at low levels under normal circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well known that DNA methylation is associated with cell differentiation and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are aDMRs, also known as intra-individual DMRs (Intra-DMRs), which are changes in global DNA methylation as the age of a given individual increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local
  • It has been reported that UV radiation leads to local and systemic immunosuppression, due to DNA damage and altered cytokine expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • base
  • TET2 may also be a candidate for active DNA demethylation, the catalytic removal of the methyl group added to the fifth carbon on the cytosine base. (wikipedia.org)