• antibodies
  • A patient developed this chorea with no definite evidence of previous Sydenham's chorea or recent streptoccocal infections, but had anti-basal ganglia antibodies, suggesting immunological basis for the pathophysiology of this chorea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed link between infection and these disorders is that an initial autoimmune reaction to a GABHS infection produces antibodies that interfere with basal ganglia function, causing symptom exacerbations. (wikipedia.org)
  • pallium
  • In basal vertebrates the pallium is a relatively simple three-layered structure, encompassing 3-4 histogenetically distinct domains, plus the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loop
  • The loop was originally proposed as a part of a model of the basal ganglia called the parallel processing model, which has been criticized and modified into another model called the center surround model. (wikipedia.org)
  • and in part make up the basal ganglia motor loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • Apart from the spinal cord, there are also peripheral nerves of the PNS that synapse through intermediaries or ganglia directly on the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • olfactory
  • Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (2nd cranial nerve), as well as the olfactory nerves (1st) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • The key roles of basal ganglia are highlighted by motor and cognitive disorders observed in different pathologies such as Parkinson's disease or addiction, for which no fully satisfying treatments are available yet. (college-de-france.fr)
  • cognition
  • While Allport's (1954) The Nature of Prejudice remains a touchstone for psychological research on prejudice, the study of implicit social cognition has two distinct and more recent sets of roots. (stanford.edu)
  • The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), which is completely distinct from the similarly named Aicardi syndrome, is a rare, usually early onset childhood, inflammatory disorder most typically affecting the brain and the skin (neurodevelopmental disorder). (wikipedia.org)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • The factors that may determine the likelihood of committing errors are likely related to the stability of task-representations in prefrontal networks, attentional selection mechanisms and mechanisms of action selection in basal ganglia circuits. (frontiersin.org)
  • behaviors
  • Popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection - in helping to decide which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • motivation
  • Basal ganglia are central in procedural learning since they participate in the detection of environmental cues and in the selection of appropriate actions based on motivation and reward. (college-de-france.fr)
  • function
  • In order to elucidate the function of these receptors in the biology of the extrapyramidal motor system, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the regional and cellular expression patterns of mGluR1-mGluR5 in the adult rat basal ganglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • What is the function of the basal ganglia? (brainscape.com)
  • entity
  • It is not an causal or pathologically distinct entity but a generic term for chorea of any cause starting during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Ligand binding studies have revealed that the basal ganglia contain at least two pharmacological types of metabotropic binding sites. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the timing of basal ganglia activity and limb moment, as well as lesion studies do not support this hypothesis Two models have been proposed to explain how actions are selected in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, encoding distinct isoforms, have been reported. (wikipedia.org)