• ileum
  • It is primarily associated with mature enterocytes in the villus tips ( 21 ), and the tissue content of the enzyme increases along the small intestines, being lower in the duodenum and higher in the distal ileum ( 15 ). (physiology.org)
  • The mechanism by which baicalin modulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the mucosa of distal ileum was investigated in a rat model of acute endo-toxemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In summary, baicalin could ameliorate LPS-induced iNOS and NO overproduction in mucosa of rat terminal ileum via inhibition of p38 signalling cascade and activation of PPARγ pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • They are an important part of gut associated lymphoid tissue usually found in humans in the lowest portion of the small intestine, mainly in the distal jejunum and the ileum, but also could be detected in the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopically, Peyer's patches appear as oval or round lymphoid follicles (similar to lymph nodes) located in the submucosa layer of the ileum and extend into the mucosa layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the distal ileum, they are numerous and they form a lymphoid ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 46% of Peyer's patches are concentrated in the distal 25 cm of ileum in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). "Distribution of Peyer's patches in the distal ileum[J]". Inflammatory bowel diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two variants of jejunoileal anastomosis were developed, the end-to-side and end-to end anastomoses of the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands
  • PKG-II has been detected in renal cells, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex, club cells in distal airways, intestinal mucosa, pancreatic ducts, parotid and submandibular glands, chondrocytes, and several brain nuclei, but not in cardiac and vascular myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestine
  • hGH message expression was highest in the distal small intestine, with only one line expressing comparable levels in the colon. (physiology.org)
  • Two theories have been proposed to explain how small bowel manipulations can improve glucose metabolism: the distal (or hindgut) hypothesis suggests that diabetes control results from the rapid delivery of nutrient chyme to the distal intestine, enhancing physiologic signals that improve glucose metabolism (i.e., increased incretins, specifically glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP- or increased intestinal uptake of glucose) ( 12 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A, B) Morphological analysis of the distal small intestine from WT (A) and v -Msi1 (B) mice. (nih.gov)
  • In the small intestine, villi are folds of the mucosa that increase the surface area of the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It affects the distal small intestine and can affect the respiratory tract in both immunocompetent (i.e., individuals with a normal functioning immune system) and immunocompromised (e.g., persons with HIV/AIDS or autoimmune disorders) individuals, resulting in watery diarrhea with or without an unexplained cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-primary source needed] In immunocompetent individuals, cryptosporidiosis is primarily localized to the distal small intestine and sometimes the respiratory tract as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • colon
  • The appendix has a mucosa resembling the colon but is heavily infiltrated with lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the reason for which chromoendoscopy is being performed, the dye can be sprayed directly on a suspected abnormality (such as for identification of squamous cell carcinoma) or diffusely to the mucosa (such as for screening for dysplasia in ulcerative colitis When the stain is applied diffusely in the colon, a complete colonoscopy is performed with the instrument lying in the cecum. (wikipedia.org)
  • That area of mucosa is characterized, and then the procedure is repeated in the next area of the colon that is more distal, until the procedure is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colon, in contrast, contains a densely-populated microbial ecosystem with up to 1012 cells per gram of intestinal content. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Diamine oxidase metabolizes polyamines and histamine ( 2 , 18 ), and, on the basis of this action and the extracellular location, it is postulated that it prevents the absorption of polyamines and histamine originating from ingested food and intestinal bacteria ( 17 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Intestinal bacteria also play a role in synthesizing vitamin B and vitamin K as well as metabolizing bile acids, sterols, and xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral organism that establishes on gastric mucosa causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a carcinogen for gastric cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower one third of the esophagus is drained into the superficial veins lining the esophageal mucosa, which drain into the left gastric vein (coronary vein), which in turn drains directly into the portal vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • In addition, specific constituents of these ingredients and peptides released during the enzymatic digestion of constituent proteins in the digestive tract can exert other, non-strict nutritional effects on e.g. feed intake, nutrient digestion, intestinal microbiota, signaling of the immune system or, after absorption, on physiological and metabolic processes. (biomin.net)
  • differentiation
  • CDX2 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus where it has been shown that components from gastroesophageal reflux such as bile acids are able to induce the expression of an intestinal differentiation program through up-regulation of NF-κB and CDX2. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • This happy result does not occur in every patient, but approximately one-third of those undergoing "intestinal bypass" have a relatively benign course. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoscopy
  • Stains can be used in conjunction with other techniques that allow for better identification of mucosa, such as magnification endoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Two fatty acid binding protein genes designated liver fatty acid binding protein ( Fabpl ) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein ( Fabpi ), as well as the sucrase-isomaltase gene ( Si ), have been especially well studied using transgenic systems ( 9 , 28 , 29 , 34 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Triglycerides and fatty acids increased diamine oxidase in the intestinal lymph, and the longer-chain triglyceride was more effective. (physiology.org)
  • increases
  • Histamine, one of the substrates, when given intravenously or intraduodenally, increases the enzyme activity in the intestinal lymph as well ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Magnesium-containing agents also cause the release of cholecystokinin, which increases intestinal motility and fluid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Previous studies from our laboratories have shown that Musashi1 controls stem cell -like features in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, and breast cancer cells, and has pro-proliferative and pro-tumorigenic properties in intestinal epithelial progenitor cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • infections
  • Co-infections with other gastro-intestinal nematodes such as O. ostertagi and H. contortus are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors in children include certain infections, diseases like cystic fibrosis, and intestinal polyps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rates tend to be higher in the developed world with some proposing this to be the result of less exposure to intestinal infections, or a Western diet and lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • bypass
  • Patients with intestinal bypass develop diarrhea 4-6 times daily, the frequency of stooling varying directly with fat intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Crystal violet is absorbed into intestinal and neoplastic cells and is used to identify Barrett's esophagus and colonic neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. (hindawi.com)
  • According to our observations, only lipids increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase. (physiology.org)
  • Ingestion of olive oil was also observed to increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase activity ( 26 , 27 ), but how the long chain triglycerides release the enzyme from its source is still unclear. (physiology.org)
  • liver
  • Methods of treating the portal hypertension include: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, or a distal splenorenal shunt procedure or a liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)