• infection
  • Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiates a slowly progressive degenerative disease of the immune system termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (springer.com)
  • The primary immunologic defect in AIDS is an inexorable depletion of CD4 + T cells, a depletion invariably associated with opportunistic infection, degenerative neurologic disease, a variety of neoplastic changes, and ultimately death ( Lifson et al. (springer.com)
  • In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great diversity of infectious pathogens, their possible hosts, and the ways in which their hosts respond to infection has resulted in multiple definitions for "natural reservoir", many of which are conflicting or incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2002 conceptual exploration published in the CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases, the natural reservoir of a given pathogen is defined as "one or more epidemiologically connected populations or environments in which the pathogen can be permanently maintained and from which infection is transmitted to the defined target population. (wikipedia.org)
  • 45:139-147 Burgess EC, French JrJB & Gendron-Fitzpatrick A. (1990) Systemic disease in Peromyscus leucopus associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hofmeister EK, Ellis BA, Glass GE & Childs JE (1999) Longitudinal study of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus at a Lyme disease-enzootic site in Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease caused by a group of ruminant gamma herpes viruses including Alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and Ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) These viruses cause unapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (sheep with OvHV-2 and wildebeest with AlHV-1), but are usually fatal in cattle and other ungulates such as deer, antelope, and buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease outbreaks in cattle are usually sporadic although infection of up to 40% of a herd has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term bovine malignant catarrhal fever has been applied to three different patterns of disease: In Africa, wildebeests carry a lifelong infection of AlHV-1 but are not affected by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle of all ages are susceptible to the disease, with a higher infection rate in adults, particularly in peripartuent females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) can cause significant economic loss in channel catfish farms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, this disease is sometimes classified as a sexually transmitted infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Management of the disease historically meant preventing infection by avoiding tree wounds, removing diseased trees and breaking root connections with vibratory plows, trenchers/rocksaws or hoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term sexually transmitted infection is generally preferred over sexually transmitted disease or venereal disease, as it includes those who do not have symptomatic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health officials originally introduced the term sexually transmitted infection, which clinicians are increasingly using alongside the term sexually transmitted disease in order to distinguish it from the former. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risks and transmission probabilities of sexually transmitted diseases are summarized by act in the table: Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), colloquially known as "the clap" Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis) Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma hominis Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) Ureaplasma infection Candidiasis (yeast infection) Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)-saliva, venereal fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • 189:1515-1523 Brunner JL, LoGiudice K & Ostfeld RS (2008) Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores
  • When infected with this disease, the flowers generate pathogenic spores, which can then be transferred to other plants by pollinating insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are fungal diseases that can infect different parts of the host plants (i.e. leaves, stems, flowers) and usually create black spores called teliospores in the infected area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence
  • 25:1564-1566 Anita Rogic, Nathalie Tessier, Pierre Legendre, François-Joseph Lapointe, Virginie Millien (2013) Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • It has also been found to be a competent reservoir for the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • 42:254-259 Goodwin BJ, Ostfeld RS & Schauber EM (2001) Spatiotemporal variation in a Lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989) Antibody response in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus ) experimental infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • A presumptive diagnosis can be made based on the history, clinical signs, pattern of mortality and water temperature, especially if there is a history of the disease in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • Until the 1990s,[citation needed] STIs were commonly known as venereal diseases, the word venereal being derived from the Latin word venereus, and meaning relating to sexual intercourse or desire, ultimately derived from Venus, the Roman goddess of love. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Reservoirs may comprise one or more different species, may be the same or a different species as the target, and, in the broadest sense, may include vector species, which are otherwise distinct from natural reservoirs and should not be confused with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • waters
  • Even though the parasite that causes WD has been found in the popular reservoir southeast of Heber City, DWR biologists say Strawberry should remain one of the country's best trout fishing waters. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Using membrane filtration, L. hongkongensis was isolated from the waters of six reservoirs, with numbers ranging from 1 to 12 CFU l(-1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • drinking water
  • We carried out a surveillance study to investigate the presence of L. hongkongensis in water and freshwater fish from 10 drinking water reservoirs in Hong Kong. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dams and reservoirs can be used to supply drinking water, generate hydroelectric power, increase the water supply for irrigation, provide recreational opportunities, and flood control. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Disease occurs in fish less than a year old that weigh less than 10 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease typically occurs at temperatures below 13⁰C, and it can be seen in any area with water temperatures consistently below 15⁰C. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Viruses of the taxon Ebolavirus, which causes Ebola virus disease, are thought to have a natural reservoir in bats or other animals exposed to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural host reservoir for Ovine herpesvirus 2 is the subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goats) whilst MCF affected animals are from the families Bovidae, Cervidae and suidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is an abundance of these diseases across biological kingdoms (i.e. plants, animals, fungi). (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • In Eastern and Southern Africa MCF is classed as one of the five most important problems affecting pastoralists along with East coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease and anthrax.Hartebeests and topi also may carry the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease exists in Africa and tropical Americas, spread by biting midges or blackflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Good bio-security practices should help reduce the risk of spreading the disease if the virus reaches the United States. (missouri.edu)
  • Various strains of the virus have been reported and are categorized according to their pathogenicity, or ability to produce disease. (missouri.edu)
  • Waterfowl such as ducks act as a reservoir, or storage system, for the virus. (missouri.edu)
  • Ducks or geese may contract the disease and either recover or survive for long periods of time while shedding virus as they move about. (missouri.edu)
  • Channel Catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae family that causes disease in catfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is endemic in the USA and there are reports of the virus in Honduras and Russia. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The water of a deep reservoir in temperate climates typically stratifies with a large volume of cold, oxygen poor water in the hypolimnion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural
  • Another area biologists are concerned about is the natural recruitment of cutthroat trout and kokanee salmon in the reservoir. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • Because of the enormous variety of infectious microorganisms capable of causing disease, precise definitions for what constitutes a natural reservoir are numerous, various, and often conflicting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "multi-host" organism is capable of having more than one natural reservoir. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Tubifex worms that are not resistant to the disease release triactinomyxons, an intermediate host of the parasite, into the water. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • A common criterion in other definitions distinguishes reservoirs from non-reservoirs by the degree to which the infected host shows symptoms of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbotryum violaceum is a host-specific anther smut (fungus) disease that infects Silene latifolia and sterilizes the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some instances a disease can be carried with no symptoms, which leaves a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Because no commercial treatment or vaccine is available for this disease, livestock management is the only method of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The term biosecurity refers to maintaining a farm or facility in a state of cleanliness to protect against the infiltration of biological disease agents. (missouri.edu)
  • adults
  • These individuals include HIV+ patients, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, transplantation recipients undergoing immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection, patients with severe allergic or autoimmune diseases receiving immunosuppressive therapy, children or adults with congenital immunodeficiencies and more. (vin.com)
  • temperatures
  • Under worse case conditions (such as when the reservoir is full or near full), the stored water is strongly stratified and large volumes of water are being released to the downstream river channel via bottom level outlets, depressed temperatures can be detected 250 - 350 kilometres downstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Her primary research and publications focus on biosocial interactions that cause or contribute to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The objective of biosecurity practices is to prevent anything that can carry a disease-causing organism from coming in contact with the birds. (missouri.edu)
  • develop
  • While the rate of sedimentation varies for each dam and each river, eventually all reservoirs develop a reduced water-storage capacity due to the exchange of "live storage" space for sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hygiene
  • Normally, people do not need to be advised to part with their pets but rather to take precautions related to ectoparasite control, personal hygiene, feeding, vaccination and disease testing. (vin.com)
  • Appropriate quarantine and hygiene measures should be employed to prevent spread of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • 1991) Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice. (wikipedia.org)