• proteins
  • A vaccine usually contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. (pennsylvania-magazine.com)
  • genus Capripoxvirus , family Poxviridae ) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Describe the transgenic organism and describe where the vaccine proteins are produced (stem, flowers, fruit, etc). (wesrch.com)
  • The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. (wur.nl)
  • The production of therapeutic proteins, including vaccines, often requires costly purification steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation of proteins that are not naturally modified like the malaria vaccine candidate pfs25 can occur in common expression systems like yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae provides a glycosylation free environment, helping ensure proteins like malaria vaccine candidate pfs25 retain their natural, unmodified structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of novel assays to measure disease associated misfolded proteins, with a specific expertise in the biology of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope mapping of complex target antigens, such as membrane proteins or multi-subunit proteins, is often challenging because of the difficulty in expressing and purifying these types of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine of this type would present a slow replication process of HSV, thereby also damping down the immune evasion strategies of the virus while simultaneously exposing the host to the full complement of HSV's majority of viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, it is the intent of the vaccine to expose the individual's immune response to the HSV proteins it may have been missing from a wild type virus in order to effectively control the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both Sanofi Pasteur and the clinical-stage immunotherapy company Immune Design have entered a broad collaboration, which will explore the potential of various combinations of agents against HSV-2, including an adjuvanted trivalent vaccine candidate G103, consisting of recombinantly-expressed viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Ongoing research in novel molecules targeted at specific mechanisms of action in the body is aimed at providing immunity against fatal diseases such as cancer and Zika virus disease. (marketresearch.com)
  • The factors that propel the global growth include long-lived immunity provided by this vaccine and risk of reactions are very low. (pennsylvania-magazine.com)
  • Because of these hazards and other limitations, such as thermal instability, short duration of immunity and lack of cross protection, intense research focused on the design of improved vaccines, has been developed. (springer.com)
  • Andrianova EP, Krementsugskaia SR, Lugovskaia NN, et al (2011) Foot and mouth disease virus polyepitope protein produced in bacteria and plants induces protective immunity in guinea pigs. (springer.com)
  • Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogens-specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in 'naturally acquired'through chance contact with a disease causing agent, whereas 'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ('A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles', translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines , which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, a classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was produced in C. reinhardtii, providing immunity in mice that were subcutaneously administered (injected) the vaccine but lacked oral immunization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of vaccine for dengue fever began as early as 1929, but has been hindered first by incomplete knowledge of the disease pathogenesis, and later by the need to simultaneously create a stable immunity against all four dengue serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy
  • In the first reports from the trials, vaccine efficacy was 56.5% in the Asian study and 64.7% in the Latin American study in patients who received at least one injection of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of both the Latin American and Asian studies at the 3rd year of follow-up showed that the efficacy of the vaccine was 65.6% in preventing hospitalization in children older than 9 years of age, but considerably greater (81.9%) for children who were seropositive (indicating previous dengue infection) at baseline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a trial in 2-to-5-year-old children in Vietnam, the vaccine had more than 90 percent efficacy in the first year and protection lasted at least 4 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others) the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular strains of the disease) whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue
  • We describe the results from a human clinical trial of a dengue virus serotype-1, purified-inactivated vaccine (DENV-1 PIV) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. (ajtmh.org)
  • Few arboviral vaccines are currently available, but there is a growing need for safe and effective vaccines against some highly pathogenic arboviruses such as Chikungunya, dengue, West Nile, Rift Valley fever and Bluetongue viruses. (wur.nl)
  • Dengue vaccine is a vaccine to prevent dengue fever in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017 the manufacturer recommended that the vaccine only be used in people who have previously had a dengue infection, as outcomes may be worsened in those who have not been previously infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017 the manufacturer recommended that the vaccine only be used in people who have previously had a dengue infection as otherwise there was evidence it may worsen subsequent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both trials vaccine reduced by about 80% the number of severe dengue cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope mapping is also crucial to developing vaccines against prevalent viral diseases such as Dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Advancements in development of novel adjuvants and therapeutic vaccines are expected to drive growth during the forecast period. (marketresearch.com)
  • Epitope mapping is an important component in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the genetic similarity of both herpes simplex virus types (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the development of a prophylactic-therapeutic vaccine that proves effective against one type of the virus would likely prove effective for the other virus type, or at least provide most of the necessary fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated). (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • This first-in-man, Phase 1, open-label clinical trial consisted of two groups of flavivirus-naïve healthy adult volunteers that received two intramuscular vaccine doses of either 2.5 μg or 5 μg of DENV-1 PIV administered on days 0 and 28. (ajtmh.org)
  • The current study is a phase IIIa clinical trial with a commercially available vaccine (Influvac®) supplied in pre filled syringes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The vaccine passed phase I trials and is being tested in phase II studies in Thailand and Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • TDEN PIV is inactivated tetravalent vaccine undergoing phase I trials as part of a collaboration between GSK and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • A synergistic formulation with another live attenuated candidate vaccine (prime-boost strategy) is also being evaluated in a phase II study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another phase 2 study of the same vaccine was done in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, Astellas Pharma has started on individuals who received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant a Phase III trial with its CMV deoxyribonucleic acid DNA cytomegalovirus vaccine ASP0113. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, Astellas Pharma has commenced on healthy volunteers a Phase I trial with its cytomegalovirus vaccine ASP0113. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Alexandersen S, Brotherhood I, Donaldson AI (2002a) Natural aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs: minimal infectious dose for strain O-1 Lausanne. (springer.com)
  • The Austrian-South African immunologist Max Sterne (1905-1997) developed an attenuated live animal vaccine in 1935 that is still employed and derivatives of his strain account for almost all veterinary anthrax vaccines used in the world today. (wikipedia.org)
  • With little help from colleagues, Sterne performed small-scale experiments which isolated the "Sterne strain" (34F2) of anthrax which became, and remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • In Europe, manufacturers/marketing holders of these vaccines are required to be involved in ongoing clinical trials and to present the results to the competent authorities each year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pre-clinical trials in mice involving an edible algae based malaria vaccine were successful in a limited capacity in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine candidate, first developed in 1987 in Colombia, was evaluated in clinical trials carried out by the WHO in Gambia, Tanzania and Thailand, and had mixed results. (wikipedia.org)
  • More research and clinical trials are required for a universal vaccine to be implemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though cattle might not be showing clinical signs they can still spread the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short of this ideal, a candidate vaccine might be considered successful if it (a) mitigates primary clinical episodes, (b) prevents colonization of the ganglia, (c) helps reduce the frequency or severity of recurrences, and (d) reduces viral shedding in actively infected or asymptomatic individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes
  • Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life, producing a disease known as shingles or herpes zoster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of particular herpes research include drug development, vaccines and genome editing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Already proven as safe and effective in studies on animals, eliciting 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine, Halford's vaccine has been tested outside of the United States, in St. Kitts and is expecting a 2018 test in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis
  • Vaccines have eliminated naturally occurring smallpox, and nearly eliminated polio, while other diseases, such as typhus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and B and others are well controlled. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen production
  • This comprehensive review discusses the biology and current state of the art in vaccine development for arboviruses belonging to the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Reoviridae and the potential of the baculovirus-insect cell expression system for vaccine antigen production The members of three of these four arbovirus families have enveloped virions and display immunodominant glycoproteins with a complex structure at their surface. (wur.nl)
  • smallpox
  • Inoculation with smallpox (variolation) was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholera
  • In 2003, the first documented algal-based vaccine antigen was reported, consisting of a foot-and-mouth disease antigen complexed with the cholera toxin subunit B which delivered the antigen to digestion mucosal surfaces in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • People infected with cholera often have diarrhea, and disease transmission may occur if this highly liquid stool, colloquially referred to as "rice-water", contaminates water used by others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1870s, the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) applied his previous method of immunizing chickens against chicken cholera to anthrax, which affected cattle, and thereby aroused widespread interest in combating other diseases with the same approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • International Primate Protection League Controversy Still Surrounds Malaria Vaccine Hunting of the nocturnal monkey for scientific purposes threatens the species and devastates the environment(Spanish) Structural and Immunological Principles Leading to Chemically Synthesized, Multiantigeni c, Multistage, Minimal Subunit-Based Vaccine Development, abstract of article in Chemical Reviews, from de American Chemical Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging Rules for Subunit-Based, Multiantigenic, Multistage Chemically Synthesized Vaccines, abstract of article in Accounts of Chemical Research, from the American Chemical Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Arzt J, Gregg DA, Clavijo A, Rodriguez LL (2009) Optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of Foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues. (springer.com)
  • Further studies have been conducted in C. reinhardtii and have depended heavily upon antigen expression yields, antibody titers elicited from the antigen and the adjuvent(delivery system) that the vaccine was administered with. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine significantly boosted the antibody levels and reduced the duration of post-transplantation viremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been shown that the vaccine induces strong HSV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses, protects against challenge with a wild-type HSV-2 virus, reduces the severity of recurrent disease, provides cross-protection against HSV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monovalent
  • The Naval Medical Research Center attempted to develop a monovalent DNA plasmid vaccine, but early results showed it to be only moderately immunogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The global pediatric vaccines market is expected to reach USD 60.4 billion by 2025 at an 11.7% CAGR, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Advancements in development of vaccines and new product launches are some of the major drivers of the market. (marketresearch.com)
  • Important issues concerning foot-and-mouth disease occurrence, pathogenesis and vaccine development, are reviewed in this chapter. (springer.com)
  • African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses? (ugent.be)
  • These businesses cover the following areas: Soils, Crops & Water: Provision of applied research and knowledge transfer, focusing on the development of sustainable and profitable crop production systems including implementation of pest, disease and weed management strategies, improving arable and horticultural crop performance, development of biomass and biofuel crops and use of natural plant products in new markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of all these, there has been considerable effort made towards the development of a vaccine, with particular emphasis on protection of pregnant women. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, CMV infection is strongly associated with development of Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of such a vaccine has been emphasized as a priority by the National Vaccine Program Office in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Anthrax vaccines were developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and available for use in humans by 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few experimental trials have evoked a response strong enough to protect against disease and the technique's usefulness remains to be proven in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dl5-29 vaccine is also known under the name ACAM-529 or HSV-529, a replication-defective vaccine that has proved successful in preventing both HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections and in combating the virus in already-infected hosts, in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional vaccines cover a small number of diseases, while other infections kill millions of people every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika
  • Separately, Inovio Pharmaceuticals and GeneOne Life Science began tests of a different DNA vaccine against Zika in Miami. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • By study day 42, 2 weeks following the second vaccine dose, all volunteers in both vaccine groups developed serum-neutralizing antibodies against DENV-1. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, a significant production of IgG antibodies, which are the most common antibodies in circulation, was not found in mice that were only immunized solely via the edible algae vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Arzt J, Pacheco JM, Smoliga GR et al (2014) Foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection. (springer.com)
  • Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura (in tuberculous pleurisy), the central nervous system (in tuberculous meningitis), the lymphatic system (in scrofula of the neck), the genitourinary system (in urogenital tuberculosis), and the bones and joints (in Pott disease of the spine), among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these symptoms are mainly non-life-threatening it is an economically important disease as infection may cause a drop in production and affect trade restrictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against (breakthrough infection), the disease is likely to be less virulent than in unvaccinated victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • If shingles develops, antiviral medications such as aciclovir can reduce the severity and duration of disease if started within 72 hours of the appearance of the rash. (wikipedia.org)
  • recipients
  • All currently used anthrax vaccines show considerable local and general reactogenicity (erythema, induration, soreness, fever) and serious adverse reactions occur in about 1% of recipients. (wikipedia.org)