• conjugate vaccine
  • All Hib vaccines that are currently used are conjugate vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis in the United States, causing an estimated 20,000 cases a year in the early 1980s, mostly in children under 5 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since optimal contact between B cells and T cells is required (via MHC II) to maximize antibody production, it is reasoned that the conjugate vaccine allows B cells to properly recruit T cells, this is in contrast to the polysaccharide form in which it is speculated that B cells do not interact optimally with T cells leading to the TI interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to routine use of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the U.S. since 1990, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased to 1.3/100,000 in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Because some children will have their 18-month or 'preschool dose' of DTP vaccine deferred this spring and summer, it may be necessary for day-care centers or school systems to allow provisional enrollment of such children until they can receive the needed doses. (cdc.gov)
  • Some children may need to have more than 1 dose of this vaccine. (drugs.com)
  • Missed dose: If this vaccine is part of a series of vaccines , it is important that your child receive all of the shots. (limamemorial.org)
  • This vaccine works by exposing your child to a small dose of the bacteria or virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. (cigna.com)
  • Kinrix is labeled to be given as a single dose to complete the 5th dose in the DTaP vaccine series and the 4th dose in the IPV series in children who are 4 to 6 years of age who received Infanrix (DTaP) or Pediarix (DTaP, recombinant Hepatitis B, and IPV) for the first 3 doses and Infanrix for the 4th dose. (drugs.com)
  • The wholesale cost of a pentavalent vaccine which includes Hib in the developing world was 15.40 USD per dose as of 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was tested whether a high-titer (high-dose) measles vaccine (HTMV) given at 4-6 months of age was as effective against measles infection as the standard measles vaccine (MV) given at 9 months of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • A version that also includes tetanus, diphtheria, polio, and Hib vaccine is available wholesale in the developing world at a cost of 15.41 USD per dose as of 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine
  • Diphtheria-tetanus vaccine should not be substituted in the routine DTP vaccine schedule for 18-month-old and 4- to 6-year-old children. (cdc.gov)
  • The occurrence of tetanus in the United States has decreased markedly because of the routine use of tetanus toxoid. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] After routine use of the vaccine in the United States from 1980 to 1990, the rate of invasive Hib disease decreased from 40-100 per 100,000 children down to fewer than 1 per 100,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommend all children be vaccinated for pertussis and that it be included in routine vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The live attenuated BCG vaccine developed against tuberculosis has been shown to have strong beneficial effects on the ability to combat non-tuberculosis infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent resurgence in pertussis infections is put down to a combination of waning immunity and new mutations in the pathogen that existing vaccines are unable to effectively control. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Hib remains a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children in developing countries where the vaccine is not widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unencapsulated H. influenzae strains are unaffected by the Hib vaccine and cause ear infections (otitis media), eye infections (conjunctivitis), and sinusitis in children, and are associated with pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • In a situation with herd immunity to the target disease, the non-specific effects can be more important for overall health than the specific vaccine effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • OPV also provided longer lasting immunity than the Salk vaccine as it provides both humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other live-virus vaccines, immunity initiated by OPV is probably lifelong. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Adjusted analysis of the antibody responses indicated that after three doses mean titers among preterm infants to each vaccine component were comparable to those of full term infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Of the 337 children who were vaccinated, 99.4% and 100% had protective anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibody titers, respectively. (ac.ir)
  • doses
  • A survey conducted by eight different state health departments of 583 physicians indicated approximately one-third had had difficulties in obtaining DTP vaccine, and approximately one-half were following the current recommendations to defer the DTP doses for 18-month-old and 4- to 6-year-old children. (cdc.gov)
  • Practitioners should not administer partial doses of DTP vaccine in an effort to make the vaccine go further, since the degree of protection afforded by such partial doses is not certain. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important for practitioners to establish recall systems to ensure that children whose doses are deferred are recalled for the DTP vaccine they need once supplies become available. (cdc.gov)
  • Tetanus toxoid should be given to infants from 6 to 8 weeks old, in three doses with 4 to 8 week intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral polio vaccines cause about three cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis per million doses given. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001 it produced ca. 110 million doses of vaccines and 300 thousand vials of hyperimmune sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world, and reduced the number of cases reported each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 37 in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • The most common reactions are mild fever, loss of appetite, transient redness, swelling, or pain at the site of injection, occurring in 5-30% of vaccine recipients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 10 and 50% of people given the whole-cell vaccines develop redness at the injection site or fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pertussis component of the original DPT vaccine accounted for most of the minor local and systemic side effects in many vaccinated infants (such as mild fever or soreness at the injection site). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 10 and 50% of people given the whole-cell vaccines develop redness, swelling, soreness or tenderness at the injection site and/or fever, less than 1% experience febrile seizures or long periods of crying, and less than 1 out of every 1,000 to 2,000 people vaccinated have a hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • In June 2011, the third phase test of dengue vaccine involving 800 humans with ages of 2 and 14 years old have been held in 5 community health centre around Jakarta and will be conducted also in Bandung, West Java and Denpasar, Bali with 800 and 400 participants, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first test was performed on a limited number of soldiers and the second phase was conducted on a small number of children and if within the next 5 years the vaccine is found to be safe for humans, government will apply the dengue vaccine to public. (wikipedia.org)
  • previous vaccine
  • If you have had a brain problem like coma, lowered level of awareness, or seizures from an unknown cause within 7 days of a previous vaccine that has pertussis. (drugs.com)
  • Your child should not receive this vaccine if he or she has a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine). (cigna.com)
  • children
  • This vaccine should not be given to children with certain medical conditions, such as illnesses with fever or seizures. (umm.edu)
  • Not all brands of vaccines are for children. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of this vaccine in infants younger than 6 weeks of age and children 7 years of age and older. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It was later discovered that it was not the HTMV, but rather a subsequent inactivated vaccine (DTP or IPV for different children), that caused the increase in female mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actually, it's just the opposite: the NVIC is the most powerful anti-vaccine organization in America, and its relationship with the U.S. government consists almost entirely of opposing federal efforts aimed at vaccinating children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over this time, many parents declined to vaccinate their children against pertussis for fear of side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunogenic
  • DTP vaccine is immunogenic and safe in preterm infants when the series is initiated at 2 months after birth, and this study supports the current recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The vaccine has also been shown to be immunogenic in patients at high risk of invasive disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Diphtheria is a bacterial upper respiratory tract infection which can cause a thick, often gray-colored coating to form in the back of the throat, typically around the tonsils. (ccandh.com)
  • Pertussis , like diphtheria, is a bacterial respiratory tract infection which causes a thick mucus to form in the airways leading to a persistent cough. (ccandh.com)
  • Kinrix
  • GlaxoSmithKline has available Kinrix vaccine in tip-lok syringes (NDC 58160-0812-52) and vials (NDC 58160-0812-11). (drugs.com)
  • outbreaks
  • citation needed] however, both suggest that shorter intervals may be appropriate in some circumstances, such as for protection in pertussis outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicates
  • Available information indicates that, overall, state health departments have approximately 2.3 months' supply of DTP vaccine on hand, but this vaccine is not uniformly distributed, with 18 states having supplies on hand of 1 month or less. (cdc.gov)
  • Current information indicates that adequate supplies of DTP vaccine should become available in mid- or late 1985. (cdc.gov)