• receptor
  • The precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR), consisting of a μH chain associated with the surrogate light (SL) chain components, V pre-B and λ 5 , plays a key role in this developmental process. (rupress.org)
  • This receptor contributes to the clonal expansion, survival, and development of T cells. (genecards.org)
  • The expression of this receptor is induced by lymphocyte activation. (genecards.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate novel dose-related effects of the endogenous ligand glutamate and its metabotropic and non- N -methyl- d -aspartic acid receptor agonists on the electrophysiological properties of native K v 1.3 channels of human T lymphocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rivino L, Messi M, Jarrossay D, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F, Geginat J. Chemokine receptor expression identifies pre- T helper (Th)1, pre-Th2 and nonpolarized cells among human central memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficient mice, with an inactivation of RANKL or its receptor RANK, exhibited defects in early differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and failed to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion gene is critical to the progression of cancer because it inhibits the androgen receptor expression and it binds and inhibits androgen receptors already present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-two non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in human cells (EC 2.7.10.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Src family member Lyn is involved in signaling mediated by B-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyn is activated by stimulation of B-cell receptor, which leads to the recruitment and phosphorylation of Zap70-related nRTK, Syk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another nRTK, Btk, is also involved in signaling mediated by the B-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Thus, mice that cannot form a pre-BCR because of a targeted inactivation of the λ 5 gene show a 10-20-fold lower number of cytoplasmic μH chain (cμ) + pre-B II cells in their bone marrow compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analog, tamoxifen (TAM) as adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • His single-cell imaging experiments decoded the intracellular calcium signaling requirements for gene transcriptional activation and cell motility in lymphocytes. (uci.edu)
  • With the cloning of avian E2A and the recent description of an in vitro somatic hypermutation assay in this cell line, it should now be possible to dissect the potential role of E2A in the regulation of somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus gene conversion is the primary mechanism to establish the B cell repertoire in chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, TRIM14 regulates gene expression in different cell types by an universal mechanism: interaction with the transcription factors common to TRIM proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that when the ERG gene was not actively transcribed and the ERG protein produced, a mouse's hematopoietic cells were unable to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in fusion gene products, which can have bad consequences for cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the protein transcribes for with the gene could be produced in excess or under- produced resulting in unnatural activity in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the Btk gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, a disease characterized by the lack of mature B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • p38α MAPK is implicated in diverse cellular function, from gene expression to programmed cell death through a network of signaling molecules and transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD69 (Cluster of Differentiation 69) is a human transmembrane C-Type lectin protein encoded by the CD69 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-reactive
  • However, these discoveries, and the host of allograft experiments and observations of twin chimerism they inspired, were seminal for the theories of immune tolerance formulated by Sir Frank McFarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner, who were the first to propose the deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes to establish tolerance, now termed clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • CD226 mediates cellular adhesion to other cells bearing its ligands, CD112 and CD155, and cross-linking CD226 with antibodies causes cellular activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGE2 further potentiated both IL-4- and IL-10-induced B cell growth as determined by [3H]TdR uptake and cellular enumeration. (jimmunol.org)
  • The fact that Glu affects the sustained phase of intracellular Ca 2+ levels and thus calcium-dependent processes, such as activation and proliferation, points to cellular components that take part in the mediation and regulation of this phase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • HDL ApoAI is involved in the efflux of cholesterol from cells to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells require a full and functional cellular machinery to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • These communications between cells triggers intracellular signaling cascades, termed signal transduction pathways, that regulate specific cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes regulate many cellular functions by switching on or switching off other enzymes in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory
  • Since T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) play a major role in inhibiting the immune response during atherosclerosis development, we wanted to determine if ApoAI influences Treg development, hypothesizing that ApoAI enhances Treg development. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies FoxP3 regulatory T cells in inflamed synovia. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • We also observed that co-culturing of RBCs and leukocytes modulates the cell-cycle progression of both human and porcine lymphocytes, whereas the baseline frequency of SCEs is affected only in human cells (Larramendy et al . (scielo.br)
  • As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice did so. (frontiersin.org)
  • whereas individual T cells pair up with individual B cells while delivering "help" to trigger antibody production. (uci.edu)
  • IL-1 was the name given to the macrophage product, whereas IL-2 was used to define the lymphocyte product. (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal cells
  • 4. The medium according to claim 1, further comprising stromal cells. (google.com)
  • We have shown previously with CD19 + B220 + c-kit + pre-B I cells, grown in vitro on stromal cells in the presence of IL-7, that this stage of B cell development-characterized by DJ rearrangements, usually on both H chain alleles, and surface expression of c-kit-can be maintained for long periods of time. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the combined action of IL-7 and stromal cells prevented further differentiation into later stages of B cell development. (rupress.org)
  • Excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are thought to contribute to the development of osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) [ 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The identification of receptors for 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in cells of the immune system led to experiments in animal models of type 1 diabetes in which the administration of high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was shown to prevent type 1 diabetes [ 3 , 6 ], mainly through immune regulation. (springer.com)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to accumulation of BCRs and cross activation of these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling by many receptors is dependent on nRTKs including T-cell receptors (TCR), B-cell receptors (BCR), IL-2 receptors (IL-2R), Ig receptors, erythropoietin (EpoR) and prolactin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 and CD8 receptors on T lymphocytes require for their signaling the Src family member Lck. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • It stimulates the growth of certain lymphocytes and, in the murine model, stimulates an increase in the cortical thickness and strength of long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • Rasheed AU, Rahn HP, Sallusto F, Lipp M, Muller G. Follicular B helper T cell activity is confined to CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells and is independent of CD57 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • CCN1/Cyr61 is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling molecule that functions to promote cell adhesion, migration, survival and differentiation in the context of vascular development. (rochester.edu)
  • modulates
  • Altogether, the present data indicate that PGE2 stimulates human CD40-activated B cell growth, but differently modulates cytokine-induced differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Glutamate, at concentrations within normal plasma levels, positively modulates K v 1.3 channel gating, causing currents to activate faster and at significantly more hyperpolarized potentials, hence rendering the T lymphocyte readily responsive to immune stimuli. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, pig and human RBCs modulated the in vitro cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and the low baseline frequency of SCEs of pig lymphocytes is independent of the presence or absence of erythrocytes in culture. (scielo.br)
  • Because CCN1/Cyr61 has been shown to be induced in the lungs of patients with COPD and ARDS, I hypothesize that CCN1/Cyr61, together with inflammatory mediators such as TNFa causes cell death of primary lung cells in vivo, thus contributing to lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • Thus, the environment of fetal liver or bone marrow is not required for the pre-BCR to exert its function, which is to select and expand cells that have undergone an inframe V H -D H J H rearrangement that produces a pre-BCR-compatible μH chain. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, differentiation is an intrinsic property of pre-B I cells and does not require the bone marrow or the fetal liver microenvironment. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the efficiency by which the λ 5 −/− pre-B I cells differentiate in vitro is poor. (rupress.org)
  • regulation
  • His work shows that ion channel types play vital roles in T cell activation, cell motility, and cell volume regulation. (uci.edu)
  • Finally, mature DCs from SLE patients displayed insensitivity to the regulation of IL-12 by both normal and SLE B cells. (bmj.com)
  • This response is quick, as it involves regulation of molecules that are already present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • It is well established by now that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, apart from their signaling role in the CNS, can also directly influence T lymphocyte functions ( Levite, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • dependent
  • The incorporation of either human or pig red blood cells (RBCs) in human PLCs and MLCs produced a RBC dose-dependent decrease in the frequency of SCEs (Larramendy and Reigosa, 1986). (scielo.br)
  • CFSE-labelled T cells were cultured with mature DCs and the DC-dependent proliferative response evaluated in the presence of activated B cells to determine their influence on the function of DCs. (bmj.com)
  • embryonic
  • Overexpression of TRIM14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) leads to upregulation of several genes (hsp90ab1, prr13, pu.1, tnfrsf13c (baff-r), tnfrsf13b (taci), hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb) which are involved in early stage differentiation of embryonic stem cells, in the mesodermal layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same genes are upregulated in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) (except for hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • When doses of pig or human RBCs equivalent to those present in WBCs were added immediately after PLC stimulation, the cell-cycle kinetics were similar to those of WBCs. (scielo.br)
  • We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8 + T cells, and upon TCR stimulation, it is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2001 ) showed that, at the same doses at which it suppresses T-cell proliferation, Glu hinders the sustained calcium response that follows the stimulation of the cell and is absolutely necessary for activation and cell cycle progression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 4-1BBL, an inducible T cell surface molecule that contributes to T-cell stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • My research goals include determining a role for CCN1/Cyr61 in lung injury and inflammation and defining the mechanism by which CCN1/Cyr61 and TNFa cause cell death of lung cells in vivo. (rochester.edu)
  • RANKL derived from other cell types contributes to bone loss in conditions involving inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in lytic lesions caused by cancer, such as in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Our data indicate that pre-B I cells isolated ex vivo from normal mice possess an autonomous capacity to proliferate and differentiate. (rupress.org)
  • The activation of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) Cells, both in vivo and in vitro, induces expression of CD69. (wikipedia.org)
  • naive
  • In addition, PGE2 inhibited IgE production by naive surface IgD+ B cells cultured in the CD40 system, suggesting that PGE2 may interact with mechanisms involved in IgE switching. (jimmunol.org)
  • foreign antigens
  • Acute BCR signaling during exposure to foreign antigens promotes clonal expansion and protects foreign-specific B cells against death triggered by FasL on the T cell. (rupress.org)
  • antigens
  • There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative response
  • In the present study we investigated the proliferative response and the SCE baseline frequency of pig lymphocytes with regard to the time of co-culturing of different concentrations of human and pig RBCs in the culture medium. (scielo.br)
  • mice
  • However, in this in vitro system, pre-B I cells from λ 5 −/− mice differentiate with the same efficiency as wild-type pre-B I cells upon withdrawal of IL-7, indicating that the pre-BCR is not involved in B cell differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Pre-B I cells from λ 5 −/− mice do not undergo this proliferative expansion. (rupress.org)
  • By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre− mice switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice was compromised. (frontiersin.org)
  • We previously showed that injecting mice fed an atherogenic diet with ApoAI decreased the number of activated CD4 lymphocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine if the addition of exogenous lipid-free ApoAI could rescue and promote Treg differentiation in ApoAI-/- mice, ApoAI-/- naïve T cells were incubated in vitro with TGFβ and exogenous ApoAI. (ahajournals.org)
  • This observation was experimentally validated by Rupert E. Billingham and Peter Medawar in 1953, who showed by injecting foreign cells into fetal or neonatal mice, they could become accepting of future grafts from the same foreign donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • The capacity of precursor B (pre-B) I cells from fetal liver and bone marrow to proliferate and differentiate into surface immunoglobulin-positive immature B cells in vitro was analyzed. (rupress.org)
  • We find that pre-B I cells derived from normal C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow or fetal liver spontaneously undergo proliferative expansion and differentiate into sIg + immature B cells at high efficiencies when placed in tissue culture. (rupress.org)
  • It appears that the environment of fetal liver or bone marrow is not required for the pre-BCR to exert its major functions, namely, the selection and expansion of cells that have undergone a productive V H -D H J H rearrangement. (rupress.org)
  • Stem cells are taken from an affected child's blood or bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • This invention relates to serum-free or serum-depleted culture media for supporting the proliferation and development of cells. (google.com)
  • Shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the development of HEVs could help generate more of these venules within tumors and therefore improve the eradication of cancer cells by killer lymphocytes. (healthcanal.com)
  • We are interested in addressing questions in neuronal development and function by a combination of genetic, cell biological, biochemical and chemical approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • Avian B cell development differs from mammalian B cell development in a number of important aspects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addition of ApoAI significantly increased development of naïve ApoA1-/- lymphocytes into Treg. (ahajournals.org)
  • absence
  • Interestingly, the absence of NFAT2 in T cells resulted in increased percentage of non-conventional innate-like CD8 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • BrdU labeling studies showed that ApoAI-/- Treg had a significant 30% reduction in proliferation, suggesting that in the absence of ApoAI and normal cholesterol homeostasis, Tregs have defective proliferation. (ahajournals.org)