• receptor
  • The precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR), consisting of a μH chain associated with the surrogate light (SL) chain components, V pre-B and λ 5 , plays a key role in this developmental process. (rupress.org)
  • This receptor contributes to the clonal expansion, survival, and development of T cells. (genecards.org)
  • The expression of this receptor is induced by lymphocyte activation. (genecards.org)
  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficient mice, with an inactivation of RANKL or its receptor RANK, exhibited defects in early differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and failed to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Napolitani G, Rinaldi A, Bertoni F, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Selected Toll-like receptor agonist combinations synergistically trigger a T helper type 1-polarizing program in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rivino L, Messi M, Jarrossay D, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F, Geginat J. Chemokine receptor expression identifies pre- T helper (Th)1, pre-Th2 and nonpolarized cells among human central memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion gene is critical to the progression of cancer because it inhibits the androgen receptor expression and it binds and inhibits androgen receptors already present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-two non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in human cells (EC 2.7.10.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Src family member Lyn is involved in signaling mediated by B-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyn is activated by stimulation of B-cell receptor, which leads to the recruitment and phosphorylation of Zap70-related nRTK, Syk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another nRTK, Btk, is also involved in signaling mediated by the B-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule, which appears to be the earliest inducible cell surface glycoprotein acquired during lymphoid activation, is involved in lymphocyte proliferation and functions as a signal-transmitting receptor in lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells, and platelets (Cambiaggi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Thus, mice that cannot form a pre-BCR because of a targeted inactivation of the λ 5 gene show a 10-20-fold lower number of cytoplasmic μH chain (cμ) + pre-B II cells in their bone marrow compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analog, tamoxifen (TAM) as adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • These signals initiate reciprocal activation and silencing of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) cytokine gene loci, changes that are heritably maintained in the resulting T helper type 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)2 cells and their progeny. (jove.com)
  • Thus gene conversion is the primary mechanism to establish the B cell repertoire in chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, TRIM14 regulates gene expression in different cell types by an universal mechanism: interaction with the transcription factors common to TRIM proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in fusion gene products, which can have bad consequences for cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the protein transcribes for with the gene could be produced in excess or under- produced resulting in unnatural activity in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the Btk gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, a disease characterized by the lack of mature B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • p38α MAPK is implicated in diverse cellular function, from gene expression to programmed cell death through a network of signaling molecules and transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD69 (Cluster of Differentiation 69) is a human transmembrane C-Type lectin protein encoded by the CD69 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Cahalan's group, together with Ian Parker, pioneered the use of two-photon microscopy to image cell motility and interaction dynamics inside lymphoid organs. (uci.edu)
  • immunity
  • These findings provide insight into the mechanism of B1 cell homing and establish a critical role for B1 cell compartmentalization in the production of natural antibodies and for body cavity immunity. (jove.com)
  • TRIM14 acts in cell proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, autophagy and in the initiation of the anti-viral immune response by innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Overexpression of TRIM14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) leads to upregulation of several genes (hsp90ab1, prr13, pu.1, tnfrsf13c (baff-r), tnfrsf13b (taci), hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb) which are involved in early stage differentiation of embryonic stem cells, in the mesodermal layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same genes are upregulated in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) (except for hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb). (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIM14 transfected HEK293 cell show increased transcription of eighteen genes involved in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes play a role in regulating the distribution of zinc in the cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of T cell-restricted genes, and signatures for different T cell responses, using a comprehensive collection of microarray datasets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blimp1-deficient mutant embryos form a tight cluster of about 20 primordial germ cell-like cells, which fail to show the characteristic migration, proliferation and consistent repression of homeobox genes that normally accompany specification of primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • It stimulates the growth of certain lymphocytes and, in the murine model, stimulates an increase in the cortical thickness and strength of long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • CCN1/Cyr61 is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling molecule that functions to promote cell adhesion, migration, survival and differentiation in the context of vascular development. (rochester.edu)
  • whereas
  • We also observed that co-culturing of RBCs and leukocytes modulates the cell-cycle progression of both human and porcine lymphocytes, whereas the baseline frequency of SCEs is affected only in human cells (Larramendy et al . (scielo.br)
  • As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice did so. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1 was the name given to the macrophage product, whereas IL-2 was used to define the lymphocyte product. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD28
  • Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT), conventional IL-2(−/−), TAM-treated Cre recombinase-negative (Cre−)/IL2 fl/fl , and Cre recombinase-positive (Cre+)/IL2 fl/fl , were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. (frontiersin.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the development of HEVs could help generate more of these venules within tumors and therefore improve the eradication of cancer cells by killer lymphocytes. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition, PGE2 inhibited IgE production by naive surface IgD+ B cells cultured in the CD40 system, suggesting that PGE2 may interact with mechanisms involved in IgE switching. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similarly, in bone transplant, stem cells are able to find their way back through tracking mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and leads to production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
  • BrdU
  • Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice was compromised. (frontiersin.org)
  • dependent
  • Thus, pig and human RBCs modulated the in vitro cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and the low baseline frequency of SCEs of pig lymphocytes is independent of the presence or absence of erythrocytes in culture. (scielo.br)
  • The incorporation of either human or pig red blood cells (RBCs) in human PLCs and MLCs produced a RBC dose-dependent decrease in the frequency of SCEs (Larramendy and Reigosa, 1986). (scielo.br)
  • CFSE-labelled T cells were cultured with mature DCs and the DC-dependent proliferative response evaluated in the presence of activated B cells to determine their influence on the function of DCs. (bmj.com)
  • inflammation
  • My research goals include determining a role for CCN1/Cyr61 in lung injury and inflammation and defining the mechanism by which CCN1/Cyr61 and TNFa cause cell death of lung cells in vivo. (rochester.edu)
  • RANKL derived from other cell types contributes to bone loss in conditions involving inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in lytic lesions caused by cancer, such as in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance
  • We show that the combined loss of E2F1 and E2F2 results in profound effects on hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as increased tumorigenesis and decreased lymphocyte tolerance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The phenomenon of immune tolerance was first described by Ray D. Owens in 1945, who noted that dizygotic twin cattle sharing a common placenta also shared a stable mixture of each other's red blood cells (though not necessarily 50/50), and retained that mixture throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these discoveries, and the host of allograft experiments and observations of twin chimerism they inspired, were seminal for the theories of immune tolerance formulated by Sir Frank McFarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner, who were the first to propose the deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes to establish tolerance, now termed clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • naive
  • We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8 + T cells, and upon TCR stimulation, it is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecules
  • This initial phosphorylation event further activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, which in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory
  • Cimetidine was reported to be effective because of its depressing mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and regulatory T cell activity features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies FoxP3 regulatory T cells in inflamed synovia. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • This invention relates to serum-free or serum-depleted culture media for supporting the proliferation and development of cells. (google.com)
  • We are interested in addressing questions in neuronal development and function by a combination of genetic, cell biological, biochemical and chemical approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • Avian B cell development differs from mammalian B cell development in a number of important aspects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proliferative response
  • In the present study we investigated the proliferative response and the SCE baseline frequency of pig lymphocytes with regard to the time of co-culturing of different concentrations of human and pig RBCs in the culture medium. (scielo.br)
  • deficient
  • Here we report that in mice lacking the chemokine, CXCL13, B1 cells are deficient in peritoneal and pleural cavities but not in spleen. (jove.com)
  • stimulation
  • When doses of pig or human RBCs equivalent to those present in WBCs were added immediately after PLC stimulation, the cell-cycle kinetics were similar to those of WBCs. (scielo.br)
  • 4-1BBL, an inducible T cell surface molecule that contributes to T-cell stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Because CCN1/Cyr61 has been shown to be induced in the lungs of patients with COPD and ARDS, I hypothesize that CCN1/Cyr61, together with inflammatory mediators such as TNFa causes cell death of primary lung cells in vivo, thus contributing to lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • Thus, the environment of fetal liver or bone marrow is not required for the pre-BCR to exert its function, which is to select and expand cells that have undergone an inframe V H -D H J H rearrangement that produces a pre-BCR-compatible μH chain. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, differentiation is an intrinsic property of pre-B I cells and does not require the bone marrow or the fetal liver microenvironment. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the efficiency by which the λ 5 −/− pre-B I cells differentiate in vitro is poor. (rupress.org)
  • cycle
  • The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs) on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs) and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs) was studied. (scielo.br)
  • The addition of pig or human RBCs to PLCs accelerated the cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes. (scielo.br)
  • When RBCs were added to PLCs the concentration and time sequence of RBC incorporation affected the cell-cycle progression of swine lymphocytes. (scielo.br)
  • Shorter co-incubation periods or a reduction in the dose of RBCs made cell-cycle progression intermediate between PLC and WBC values. (scielo.br)