• ratios
  • Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Human sex ratios, either at birth or in the population as a whole, are reported in any of four ways: the ratio of males to females, the ratio of females to males, the proportion of males, or the proportion of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period 1970-2002 were 1.05 for the white non-Hispanic population, 1.04 for Mexican Americans, 1.03 for African Americans and Indians, and 1.07 for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in the absence of sex selection practices, a range of "normal" sex ratios at birth of between 103 and 108 boys per 100 girls has been observed in different economically developed countries, and among different ethnic and racial groups within a given country. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • In this system, the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Males typically have two different kinds of sex chromosomes (XY), and are called the heterogametic sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Offspring have two sex chromosomes: an offspring with two X chromosomes will develop female characteristics, and an offspring with an X and a Y chromosome will develop male characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, an abnormal number of sex chromosomes (aneuploidy) may be present, such as Turner's syndrome, in which a single X chromosome is present, and Klinefelter's syndrome, in which two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many insects of the order Hymenoptera instead have a system (the haplo-diploid sex-determination system), where the males are haploid individuals (which have just one chromosome of each type), while the females are diploid (with chromosomes appearing in pairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some other insects have the X0 sex-determination system, where just one chromosome type appears in pairs for the female but alone in the males, while all other chromosomes appear in pairs in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • While research is not conclusive, hypotheses suggest such genetic factors play a role in sexual selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In positive psychology, he showed (along with Alexander Weiss and Michelle Luciano) that the genes for happiness are genes for personality, suggesting that a general factor of genetic well-being and specific genetic influences from the five factor model traits of Extraversion, Neuroticism/Stability, and Conscientiousness completely explain the heritable component of differences in happiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Edinburgh University he has investigated individual differences in intelligence, memory, and the genetic and environmental influences on social behaviours, such as coalition affiliation, politics, and altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • differ
  • Background Although established CAD presentations differ by sex, little is known about stable, suspected CAD. (onlinejacc.org)
  • psychosocial
  • This study explored the psychosocial differences in the addictive tendency toward social networking sites (SNSs) between male and female Korean college students. (springer.com)
  • males
  • In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1.06 males/female. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The basis for this can be attributed to both biological differences in pathophysiological mechanisms and also to unequal delivery of care. (springer.com)
  • Women live significantly longer than men, though it is not clear to what extent this is a biological difference - see Life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In this process, an X chromosome and a Y chromosome act to determine the sex of offspring, often due to genes located on the Y chromosome that code for maleness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarity or differences in MHC genes can indicate variations between individuals' genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • This is further compounded by the fact that there are almost no systematic analyses of treatment differences between women and men. (tctmd.com)
  • Microalbuminuria was defined according to sex specific cut-off values for albumin-creatinine ratio (1.92 mg/mmol in men and 2.83 mg/mmol in women). (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, HbA1c-defined diabetic men showed greater relative differences in ferritin than diabetic women when compared with their nondiabetic counterparts. (unc.edu)
  • The well-established risk factors in men, such as cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, and hypercholesterolemia, also increase risk in women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the relative importance of etiologic factors in increasing the risk of atherosclerotic disease in men and women is not established. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 05). Plasma fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, and blood viscosity were the only intermediary factors that had stronger univariate correlations with lower ABPI in men than in women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are obvious differences between women and men in anatomy, physiology, hormones, and metabolism. (humankinetics.com)
  • Based on the latest research on estrogen, metabolism, and other sex-specific performance factors, Running for Women will change the way you fuel, train, and compete. (humankinetics.com)
  • Following the basic ideas of Shepard and Metzler's experiment, this study found a significant difference in the mental rotation scores between men and women, with men performing better. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS), which measures the lethality of the suicidal method by gauging the ratio between five risk and five rescue factors, averaged out to be 37.18 for men and 34.00 for women. (wikipedia.org)
  • modifiable
  • The future emphasis should be based on the prevention of modifiable risk factors and identification of subgroups of female patients that could benefit from more aggressive therapeutic strategies. (springermedizin.at)
  • male
  • For example, one possible biomarker for prenatal testosterone's effect on the brain is a low ratio of the second to fourth finger (the 2D:4D ratio), which has been found to be associated with several male specific psychological factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors give many possible explanations for this finding which are contrary to the extreme male brain theory of autism, for example it is possible that the psychometric properties of the quotients are lacking or that the theory itself is incorrect and the difference in autistic brains is not an extreme of normal functioning but of a different structure altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have found that numerous preconception or prenatal environmental factors affect the probability of a baby being conceived male or female. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • What Are Some Biases Common in Sex and Gender Research? (sagepub.com)
  • How Do We Address the Challenges in Sex and Gender Research? (sagepub.com)
  • The uncertain relevance of elite control to HIV cure research is prompting studies that attempt to parse the factors distinguishing individuals who preserve elite controller status from those who ultimately progress. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The natural factors that affect the human sex ratio are an active area of scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early years of the 21st century such observations prompted research that demonstrated that all pythons and boas so far investigated definitely have the XY system of sex determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has since conducted research in individual differences, genetics, and cognitive neuropsychology, publishing nearly 100 peer-reviewed scientific journal articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • To assess risk factors for retinopathy by sex in non-diabetic participants in the Tromsø Eye Study population. (arvojournals.org)
  • citation needed] In an extensive study, carried out around 2005, of sex ratio at birth in the United States from 1940 over 62 years, statistical evidence suggested the following: For mothers having their first baby, the total sex ratio at birth was 1.06 overall, with some years at 1.07. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • In concert with these different behavioral responses, transcriptional analysis of nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major brain reward region, by use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed markedly different patterns of stress regulation of gene expression between the sexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • social
  • EQ was developed in response to what the authors considered to be a lack of questionnaires which measure empathy exclusively: other measures such as the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy and the empathy scale have multiple factors which are uncorrelated with empathy, often associated with social skills or the ability to be emotionally aroused in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The XY system contrasts in several ways with the ZW sex-determination system found in birds, some insects, many reptiles, and various other animals, in which the heterogametic sex is female. (wikipedia.org)
  • A temperature-dependent sex determination system is found in some reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • An extremely high suicide rate among the elderly is a major contributing factor to South Korea's overall suicide rate. (wikipedia.org)