• fetal
  • Due to higher female fetal mortality, the sex ratio at birth worldwide is commonly thought to be 107 boys to 100 girls, although this value is subject to debate in the scientific community. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study with 112 boys and 100 girls found that the difference in play behavior appeared to be semi-correlated with fetal testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratios
  • Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Human sex ratios, either at birth or in the population as a whole, are reported in any of four ways: the ratio of males to females, the ratio of females to males, the proportion of males, or the proportion of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period 1970-2002 were 1.05 for the white non-Hispanic population, 1.04 for Mexican Americans, 1.03 for African Americans and Indians, and 1.07 for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in the absence of sex selection practices, a range of "normal" sex ratios at birth of between 103 and 108 boys per 100 girls has been observed in different economically developed countries, and among different ethnic and racial groups within a given country. (wikipedia.org)
  • questionnaire
  • EQ was developed in response to what the authors considered to be a lack of questionnaires which measure empathy exclusively: other measures such as the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy and the empathy scale have multiple factors which are uncorrelated with empathy, often associated with social skills or the ability to be emotionally aroused in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • When comparing men's and women's overall personality profiles, which take multiple traits into account, very large differences between the sexes became apparent, even though differences look much smaller when each trait is considered separately. (blogspot.com)
  • The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex includes 70 pages on sexual selection in human evolution, some of which concerns psychological traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, an abnormal number of sex chromosomes (aneuploidy) may be present, such as Turner's syndrome, in which a single X chromosome is present, and Klinefelter's syndrome, in which two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychosocial
  • This study explored the psychosocial differences in the addictive tendency toward social networking sites (SNSs) between male and female Korean college students. (springer.com)
  • Methods
  • However, the study indicates that previous methods to measure such differences have been inadequate, both because they focused on one trait at a time and because they failed to correct for measurement error. (blogspot.com)
  • apparent
  • Despite these apparent differences, a study of toddlers showed that both boys and girls were equally active when playing, and both sexes preferred toys that allowed them to express this. (wikipedia.org)
  • influences
  • Conclusions Patient sex influences the entire diagnostic pathway for possible CAD, from baseline risk factors and presentation to noninvasive test outcomes. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Every person's individual timetable for puberty is influenced primarily by heredity , although environmental factors, such as diet and exercise, also exert some influences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every person's individual timetable for puberty is influenced primarily by heredity, although environmental factors, such as diet and exercise, also exert some influences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • However, there are sex-related dissimilarities that seem to be involved in disease development. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • It is the stage of life characterized by the appearance and development of secondary sex characteristics (for example, a deeper voice and larger adam's apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls) and a strong shift in hormonal balance towards an adult state. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Of course, the methodological guidelines presented in this paper can and should be applied to domains of individual differences other than personality, including vocational interests, cognitive abilities, creativity, and so forth. (blogspot.com)
  • One study found some advantage for women in later life, while another found that male advantages on some cognitive tests are minimized when controlling for socioeconomic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences have been found in a variety of fields such as mental health, cognitive abilities, personality, and tendency towards aggression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, she has recognized the evolutionary and neural factors involved in sex differences while also emphasizing the malleability of cognitive ability as noted in the literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk factor
  • Sex differences in fasting glycemia as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease death. (ehesp.fr)
  • Risk factor exposure was collected from questionnaires and physical examination. (arvojournals.org)
  • According to Geoffrey C. Kabat, one of the study's authors and senior epidemiologist in the department of epidemiology and population health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York, "Height itself is not a risk factor, but it really appears to be a marker for one or more exposures that influence cancer risk. (emaxhealth.com)
  • While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups the overall contribution of these risk factors is very consistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • differently
  • not related differently between the sexes with ABPI. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1). We conclude that most lifestyle and intermediary factors were not related differently in men and women to peripheral atherosclerosis, but elevations in plasma fibrinogen and blood viscosity were each associated with a greater risk of disease in men. (semanticscholar.org)
  • women
  • This is further compounded by the fact that there are almost no systematic analyses of treatment differences between women and men. (tctmd.com)
  • Microalbuminuria was defined according to sex specific cut-off values for albumin-creatinine ratio (1.92 mg/mmol in men and 2.83 mg/mmol in women). (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, HbA1c-defined diabetic men showed greater relative differences in ferritin than diabetic women when compared with their nondiabetic counterparts. (unc.edu)
  • Our aim was to investigate a wide range of possible etiologic factors in a single population study and identify those that were more strongly related to peripheral atherosclerosis in men or women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the Edinburgh Artery Study in 1988 we measured cardiovascular risk factors in a random population sample of 1592 men and women aged 55 to 74 years. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The well-established risk factors in men, such as cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, and hypercholesterolemia, also increase risk in women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the relative importance of etiologic factors in increasing the risk of atherosclerotic disease in men and women is not established. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 05). Plasma fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, and blood viscosity were the only intermediary factors that had stronger univariate correlations with lower ABPI in men than in women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While it is true this study found big differences on personality between men and women, one glaring flaw I see is the sample size, while large, is exclusively American. (blogspot.com)
  • Thus, it cannot show if there are innate differences between the personalities of men and women. (blogspot.com)
  • Following the basic ideas of Shepard and Metzler's experiment, this study found a significant difference in the mental rotation scores between men and women, with men performing better. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early brain studies comparing mass and volumes between the sexes concluded that women were intellectually inferior because they have smaller and lighter brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many believed that the size difference caused women to be excitable, emotional, sensitive, and therefore not suited for political participation. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also proposed that discrimination, lack of opportunity, women's responsibilities in motherhood, or emotional factors may have accounted for the fact that few women had careers in intellectual fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, there is little difference between the average IQ scores of men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study. (nih.gov)
  • Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Indians: a case-control study. (nih.gov)
  • The study talks about different hypothesized sources for the differences, but doesn't actually substantiate or link to their data any of that context. (blogspot.com)
  • In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1.06 males/female. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In an extensive study, carried out around 2005, of sex ratio at birth in the United States from 1940 over 62 years, statistical evidence suggested the following: For mothers having their first baby, the total sex ratio at birth was 1.06 overall, with some years at 1.07. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • Moreover, the pattern of global sex differences in these domains may help elucidate the meaning and generality of the broad dimension of individual differences known as "masculinity-femininity" . (blogspot.com)
  • and individual differences perspective, which states that intelligence and self-esteem largely drive an individual's media choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this system, the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In this process, an X chromosome and a Y chromosome act to determine the sex of offspring, often due to genes located on the Y chromosome that code for maleness. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • found that male children who had been exposed to more prenatal testosterone scored lower on the EQ, indicating that there is not only a sex difference in empathy but also a difference within the male population which is correlated with prenatal testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one possible biomarker for prenatal testosterone's effect on the brain is a low ratio of the second to fourth finger (the 2D:4D ratio), which has been found to be associated with several male specific psychological factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have found that numerous preconception or prenatal environmental factors affect the probability of a baby being conceived male or female. (wikipedia.org)
  • The XY system contrasts in several ways with the ZW sex-determination system found in birds, some insects, many reptiles, and various other animals, in which the heterogametic sex is female. (wikipedia.org)
  • A temperature-dependent sex determination system is found in some reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • In concert with these different behavioral responses, transcriptional analysis of nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major brain reward region, by use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed markedly different patterns of stress regulation of gene expression between the sexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • little
  • Background Although established CAD presentations differ by sex, little is known about stable, suspected CAD. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Personality
  • Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. (blogspot.com)
  • We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. (blogspot.com)
  • Now, who recalls which personality trait was supposed to be overestimated by a factor of at least two, when ten percent was claimed? (blogspot.com)
  • example
  • The authors give many possible explanations for this finding which are contrary to the extreme male brain theory of autism, for example it is possible that the psychometric properties of the quotients are lacking or that the theory itself is incorrect and the difference in autistic brains is not an extreme of normal functioning but of a different structure altogether. (wikipedia.org)