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  • Virol
  • doi:10.1038/294273a0, alternatively at ResearchGate H. M. Fidanián, W. N. Drohán, M. A. Baluda: RNA of simian sarcoma-associated virus type 1 produced in human tumor cells, in: J Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes simpl
  • Since moving to Cambridge, Minson's research has focused on animal viruses, particularly those of the herpesvirus family, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the completion of his graduate studies, he trained as post-doctoral fellow on molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus (HSV) at the University of Chicago with Dr. Bernard Roizman. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it is the same lineage and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith, who holds UCLA's De Logi Chair in Biological Sciences. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it's the same lineage, and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith. (nsf.gov)
  • A defective nontransmissible recombinant Sendai virus mediates efficient gene transfer to airway epithelium in vivo. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Recombinant Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelial cells has shown to be very efficient, because of its ability to overcome the intra- and extracellular barriers known to limit gene delivery. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • The development of an F-defective nontransmissible SeV, which can still efficiently mediate gene transfer to the airway epithelium, represents the first important step towards the use of a cytoplasmic RNA viral vector in clinical trials of gene therapy. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Nucleotide sequence comparisons of the fusion protein gene from virulent and attenuated strains of rinderpest virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One or more of the genes absolutely required for replication is deleted and the virus is grown in a cell line engineered to express these gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using HSV-2, which causes genital herpes, they disabled the virus by deleting the viral gene encoding the membrane protein glycoprotein H (gH). (wikipedia.org)
  • this makes it a good virus to use as a gene therapy tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • One particularly promising method of IBV D-RNA-mediated heterologous gene expression uses the helper virus dependent system to promote IBV immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of AAV's specialized gene therapy advantages, researchers have created an altered version of AAV termed self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • latent
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are three types of persistent infections, latent, chronic and slow, in which the virus stays inside the host cell for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • simian
  • Woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV), with synonym Simian sarcoma virus (often abbreviated by SSV, but this may also stand for some species called 'Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus', that belong to different genera in family Fuselloviridae) is a species of gammaretrovirus that infects primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For its reproduction the virus needs a helper or associated virus which is called Simian sarcoma associated virus (SSAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Bunyaviridae , host plant species, virus concentration in inoculum. (apsnet.org)
  • We have analyzed atypical tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering (DI) RNA species which accumulated during a passage series in protoplasts. (unl.edu)
  • Because the virus does not infect animals, it is considered a safe vehicle for antigen display in humans and other species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Every cell that is successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, many viruses inhibit the synthesis of host DNA, RNA, proteins directly or even interfere with protein-protein, DNA-protein, RNA-protein interactions at the subcellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ruian Ke
  • We have shown that the defective virus not only transmits with the virus but increases the transmission of the functional virus," says Ruian Ke, a UCLA postdoctoral scholar in the department of ecology and evolutionary biology and the lead author of the study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We've shown that the defective virus not only goes with the normal virus, but increases the transmission of that virus," says scientist Ruian Ke, also of UCLA. (nsf.gov)
  • 2001
  • Ke discovered that the lineage of defective viruses emerged between June 1998 and February 2001 and that it was spreading in the population until at least 2002. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS Pathogens, scientists funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report a significant link between one such defective virus and the high rate of transmission of DENV-1 in Myanmar in 2001. (nsf.gov)
  • DIPs
  • The existence of DIPs has been known about for decades, and they can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • DIPs have been shown to play a role in pathogenesis of certain viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • UCLA
  • Defective viruses, thought for decades to be essentially garbage unrelated to the transmission of normal viruses, now appear able to play an important role in the spread of disease, new research by UCLA life scientists indicates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In findings published Feb. 28 in the journal PLoS Pathogens, UCLA scientists and their colleagues report for the first time a significant link between a defective virus and an increased rate of transmission of a major disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James O. Lloyd-Smith, a UCLA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and the senior author of the research. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James Lloyd-Smith, an ecologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). (nsf.gov)
  • infects
  • The dengue virus infects between 50 million and 100 million people each year in Southeast Asia, South America, parts of the United States and elsewhere. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Dengue virus infects some 50-100 million people annually in Southeast Asia, South America and parts of the United States. (nsf.gov)
  • genetic
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1892
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery of the viroid triggered the third major extension of the biosphere in history to include smaller lifelike entities--after the discovery of the "subvisible" microorganisms by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 and the "submicroscopic" viruses by Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product is not required until after the viral assembly process, which means that the disabled virus can undergo a single round of replication in normal human cells, but the progeny virus cannot infect new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural transformations can include viral cancers, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. Hepatitis B and C are also the result of natural viral transformation of the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV or A-MuLV) is a retrovirus (Class VI) used to induce transformation of murine lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DIP can usually still penetrate host cells, but requires another fully functional virus particle (the 'helper' virus) to co-infect a cell with it, in order to provide the lost factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The scientists describe when and how the defective "lineage," or series of very closely related defective DENV-1 viruses, emerged and was transmitted between humans and mosquitoes in Myanmar, as well as what the public health implications are. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks and causes disease similar to that caused by Powassan virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Parvoviridae
  • Within the family parvoviridae, the dependovirus genus was given a distinct classification due to their dependence on another virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • In this particular case, the KAN-1-induced defective RNA-encoded protein PB2∆ enhances the overwhelming immune response characteristic for highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, leading to a more severe phenotype in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes a very mild immune response, lending further support to its apparent lack of pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The single-cycle strategy can be used to generate live vaccines against other viruses, and such a vaccine has recently been successfully developed for bluetongue virus of sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • Chronic infections have similar cellular effects as acute cytocidal infections but there is a limited number of progeny and viruses involved in transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • or in the words of his colleague: ""Juli figured out how to grow the virus, how to inactivate it, and then he figured how to test the immune response to see if it worked. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAgs are produced by some pathogenic viruses and bacteria most likely as a defense mechanism against the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Isolated fetal cortical neurons from NEDD4-2 knockout mice show defective regulation of voltage-gated sodium currents, and in animal models of neuropathic pain NEDD4-2 expression has been found to be downregulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. (ajtmh.org)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • From Youngner's work, formalin application for six days was projected to produce only "one live virus particle in 100 million doses of vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Youngner identified that a difference in pH, as indicated by metabolic activity by other researchers, could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every cell that is successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses will only have transgenic DNA encapsidated and therefore once they've infected a patient's cell, they will not be capable of reproducing. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Discovery of the viroid triggered the third major extension of the biosphere in history to include smaller lifelike entities--after the discovery of the "subvisible" microorganisms by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 and the "submicroscopic" viruses by Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • The unique properties of viroids have been recognized by the International Committee for Virus Taxonomy with the creation of a new order of subviral agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • purpose
  • Therefore, lab methods often utilize minimal fragments of the helper DNA that can serve this purpose without creating unwanted virus. (wikipedia.org)