Loading...
  • Hemorrhage
  • A subarachnoid hemorrhage is an abnormal and very dangerous condition in which blood collects beneath the arachnoid mater, a membrane that covers the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study explores whether CBF enhancement with HS in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with improved cerebral tissue oxygenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- HS augments CBF in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and significantly improves cerebral oxygenation for 4 hours postinfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several previous studies reported metabolic derangements and an accumulation of metabolic products in the early phase of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which may contribute to secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • The differential diagnosis for hyperintense DW images also includes tumor, abscess and hemorrhage, conditions that also may have decreased ADC. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Additional HBO treatments are based on the following permutations: (1) If CT scan reveals intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): (a) resume HBO if neurological improvement has occurred with first treatment, or (b) stop HBO if neurologically unchanged or deterioration is observed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space - the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraocular hemorrhage (bleeding into the eyeball) may occur in response to the raised pressure: subhyaloid hemorrhage (bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous body of the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on fundoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of intracerebral hemorrhage and raised intracranial pressure (if present) leads to a "sympathetic surge", i.e. over-activation of the sympathetic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • These alterations may involve resting blood flow, brain metabolism, and spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Likewise, cerebral metabolism was found to be decreased in the contralateral hemisphere of patients for several weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrate for the first time a reduction of PDH activity following SAH, independent of supply of substrates and may be an independent factor contributing to a derangement of oxidative metabolism, failure of oxygen utilization, and secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • stroke
  • The stroke may affect pathways connecting to distant brain regions and therefore may also alter the function of remote parts of the cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such hyperexcitability may contribute to increased activation of contralateral brain areas and to functional reorganization after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not all patients who have experienced a stroke will develop a severe edema, those who do have a very poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a hemorrhagic stroke, the first steps are to find the cause of bleeding in the brain and then control it. (patientsville.com)
  • Clark WM, Wissman S, Albers GW, Jhamandas JH, Madden KP, Hamilton S, for the Atlantis Study: Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset. (ahajournals.org)
  • Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an experimental medical procedure that aims to reduce the severity of ischaemic injury to an organ such as the heart or the brain, most commonly in the situation of a heart attack or a stroke, or during procedures such as heart surgery when the heart may temporary suffer ischaemia during the operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)
  • encephalitis
  • Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent (primary encephalitis), by immune response to an infectious process (parainfectious or post-infectious encephalitis), or by a process with no known connection to an infectious etiology (e.g., auto-immune encephalitis or paraneoplastic encephalitis). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • malignant
  • Twelve patients among them showed malignant PTCI, which is defined as PTCI including the territory of Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA). (spotidoc.com)
  • Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction in a cerebral infarction in MCA territory was first described by Hacke4). (spotidoc.com)
  • For determination of clinical and radiographic parameters that may aid in identification of PTCI patients who are at high risk for fatal brain swelling, we conducted an evaluation of early clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with PTCI including malignant PTCI in consecutive PTCI patients admitted to our institution. (spotidoc.com)
  • severe
  • Symptoms may include a severe headache of rapid onset, vomiting, decreased level of consciousness, fever, and sometimes seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • focal
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • patients
  • Patients with diffuse disease may experience alterations in mental status such as decreased consciousness, behavioral or personality changes, or generalized seizures. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective review of 830 patients with traumatic brain injuries, who underwent treatment between February 2003 and August 2005 at our hospital. (spotidoc.com)
  • Although we agree that the pressure at which the patients were treated (2.5 atm absolute [ATA]) is appropriate, we feel that several of their other methodologies and interpretations require comments. (ahajournals.org)
  • oxygen
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • HBO at 3 ATA for 30 minutes then 2.0 to 2.5 ATA for 60 minutes (with time needed for compression and decompression, total exposure to elevated oxygen pressure approaches 2 hours). (ahajournals.org)
  • oxygenation
  • Initial treatment consists of ensuring a reliable airway and maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation, and blood pressure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Blanc P, Boussuges A, Henriette K, Sainty JM, Deleflie M. Iatrogenic cerebral air embolism: importance of an early hyperbaric oxygenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • injuries
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Hydrostatic
  • Osmotic and hydrostatic gradients will also cause interstitial edema, increasing the extracellular space as water shifts from blood vessels and/or ventricles. (mussenhealth.us)
  • mannitol
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • subdural
  • Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (medscape.com)
  • deficits
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • neurological
  • The "golden period" from blockage of a vessel of the brain by thrombus or embolus with onset of neurological dysfunction is 3 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • aneurysms
  • The exact role of high blood pressure is somewhat unclear, but since it does seem linked to the formation of aneurysms, it may be considered an indirect risk factor. (thefreedictionary.com)