**methods**- ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269-4:2010 provides detailed descriptions of sound statistical testing procedures and graphical data analysis methods for detecting outliers in data obtained from measurement processes. (asq.org)
- Multivariate statistical methods (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) were used to assess the data collection. (edu.pl)
- We apply our methods to chlamydia and gonorrhea data collected recently in Nebraska as part of the Infertility Prevention Project. (biomedsearch.com)
- Methods of statistical analysis may be included to guide interpretation of the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Interpretation of quality control data involves both graphical and statistical methods. (wikipedia.org)
- The formulation of Westgard rules were based on statistical methods. (wikipedia.org)

**spatial**- Local multiplicity adjustment for the spatial scan statistic using the Gumbel distribution. (biomedsearch.com)

**Inference**- An ecological fallacy (or ecological inference fallacy) is a logical fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data where inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong. (wikipedia.org)

**analyse**- To analyse a (time) series of data, we assume that it may be represented as trend plus noise: y t = a t + b + e t {\displaystyle y_{t}=at+b+e_{t}\,} where a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are unknown constants and the e {\displaystyle e} 's are randomly distributed errors. (wikipedia.org)
- Westgard rules are commonly used to analyse data in Shewhart control charts. (wikipedia.org)

**Psychological**- These findings may aid in the interpretation of results when examining stressors and counter-stress in clinical samples where one would expect stress to increase, whereas positive psychological states decrease. (biomedsearch.com)

**Ecological**- Ecological fallacy sometimes refers to the fallacy of division, which is not a statistical issue. (wikipedia.org)
- The four common statistical ecological fallacies are: confusion between ecological correlations and individual correlations, confusion between group average and total average, Simpson's paradox, and confusion between higher average and higher likelihood. (wikipedia.org)
- Ecological fallacy can refer to the following statistical fallacy: the correlation between individual variables is deduced from the correlation of the variables collected for the group to which those individuals belong. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] An example of ecological fallacy is the assumption that a population average has a simple interpretation when considering likelihoods for an individual. (wikipedia.org)

**biological**- For an extensive discussion of the statistical analysis of biological data, the reader may refer to a multitude of books and articles. (springer.com)

**Personnel**- There is also a conflict between the wide range of potential sources of data and the poor statistical evidence on the migration of health personnel. (scielosp.org)

**variance**- Variance matters: the shape of a datum. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, linear regression of this type requires that the log choice data be normally distributed, of equal variance for each log reinforcer ratio, and that the x (log reinforcer ratio) measures be fixed with no variance. (biomedsearch.com)
- We argue that, while log transformed choice data may be normally distributed, log reinforcer ratios do have variance, and because these measures derive from a binomial process, log reinforcer ratio distributions will be non-normal and skewed to more extreme values. (biomedsearch.com)
- If an individual series of observations is generated from simulations that employ a given variance of noise that equals the observed variance of our data series of interest, and a given length (say, 100 points), a large number of such simulated series (say, 100,000 series) can be generated. (wikipedia.org)
- The tolerance interval differs from a confidence interval in that the confidence interval bounds a single-valued population parameter (the mean or the variance, for example) with some confidence, while the tolerance interval bounds the range of data values that includes a specific proportion of the population. (wikipedia.org)

**displaystyle**- Given a set of points in time t {\displaystyle t} , and data values y t {\displaystyle y_{t}} observed for those points in time, values of a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are chosen so that ∑ t [ y t − ( a ^ t + b ^ ) ] 2 {\displaystyle \sum _{t}[y_{t}-({\hat {a}}t+{\hat {b}})]^{2}} is minimized. (wikipedia.org)

**behaviour**- In the quantitative analysis of behaviour, choice data are most often plotted and analyzed as logarithmic transforms of ratios of responses and of ratios of reinforcers according to the generalized-matching relation, or its derivatives such as conditional-discrimination models. (biomedsearch.com)
- This model can then be used to describe the behaviour of the observed data, without explaining it. (wikipedia.org)

**analysis**- The discussion focuses on the statistical interpretation of data rather than on the statistical procedures used in the data analysis. (springer.com)
- 1972. Statistical analysis of survival experiments. (springer.com)
- 1979. Log-linear models in the analysis of disease prevalence data from survival/sacrifice experiments. (springer.com)
- 1978. Exploratory analysis of disease prevalence data from survival/sacrifice experiments. (springer.com)
- In addition to detailed procedures and lists of required equipment and instruments, protocols often include information on safety precautions, the calculation of results and reporting standards, including statistical analysis and rules for predefining and documenting excluded data to avoid bias. (wikipedia.org)
- Then there are his technical skills, ranging from statistical analysis of economic data to interpretation of literary and visual materials. (wikipedia.org)

**estimation**- Trend estimation is a statistical technique to aid interpretation of data. (wikipedia.org)
- When a series of measurements of a process are treated as a time series, trend estimation can be used to make and justify statements about tendencies in the data, by relating the measurements to the times at which they occurred. (wikipedia.org)
- Linear trend estimation expresses data as a linear function of time. (wikipedia.org)

**assess**- An attempt is made to assess a set of biochemical, kinetic and anthropometric data for patients suffering from alcohol abuse (alcoholics) and healthy patients (non-alcoholics). (edu.pl)
- The control chart, also known as the 'Shewhart chart' or 'process-behavior chart' is a statistical tool intended to assess the nature of variation in a process and to facilitate forecasting and management. (wikipedia.org)

**unlikely**- The range (−V, V) can be employed in deciding whether a trend estimated from the actual data is unlikely to have come from a data series that truly has a zero trend. (wikipedia.org)
- The sample size is another important concept and can lead to biased data simply due to an unlikely event. (wikipedia.org)

**population**- A tolerance interval is a statistical interval within which, with some confidence level, a specified proportion of a sampled population falls. (wikipedia.org)
- Baines arrived in India in 1870, approximately halfway through the five-year-long attempt to collect statistical population data, which was the first such exercise by the Raj administration. (wikipedia.org)
- His obituary in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society describes the changes as being "first the separation of caste from religion and, secondly, the substitution of the population subsisting by an occupation for that exercising it. (wikipedia.org)

**work**- Baines spent much of his time organising the censuses and also analysing and producing reports based on their data, which were "widely recognised as the work of a brilliant ethnographer and statistician", according to an obituary published in Nature. (wikipedia.org)

**Results**- These 100,000 series can then be analysed individually to calculate estimated trends in each series, and these results establish a distribution of estimated trends that are to be expected from such random data - see diagram. (wikipedia.org)
- Many protocols include provisions for avoiding bias in the interpretation of results. (wikipedia.org)

**Studies**- These publications include raw data from various studies, their statistical interpretation, and possible conclusions presented with necessary background material. (wikipedia.org)

**approach**- clearly such a constructed series would be trend-free, so as with the approach of using simulated data these series can be used to generate borderline trend values V and −V. In the above discussion the distribution of trends was calculated by simulation, from a large number of trials. (wikipedia.org)
- The control charts: a statistical approach to the study of manufacturing process variation for the purpose of improving the economic effectiveness of the process. (wikipedia.org)

**main**- The main goal is to identify the data set structure, finding groups of similarity among the clinical parameters or among the patients. (edu.pl)
- This paper presents information on the uses of statistics and those who use them, the strengths and limitations of the main data sources, and other challenges that need to be met to obtain good evidence on the migration of health workers. (scielosp.org)

**process**- ISO/TR 14468:2010 assesses a measurement process where the characteristic(s) being measured is (are) in the form of attribute data (including nominal and ordinal data). (asq.org)

**error**- They also lead to model comparisons, which assume equal normally distributed error around every data point, being incorrect. (biomedsearch.com)

**confidence**- If such data are processed to produce a 95% confidence interval for the mean mileage of the model, it is, for example, possible to use it to project the mean or total gasoline consumption for the manufactured fleet of such autos over their first 5,000 miles of use. (wikipedia.org)

**visual**- Levey-Jennings chart is a graph that quality control data is plotted on to give a visual indication whether a laboratory test is working well.The distance from the mean is measured in standard deviations (SD). (wikipedia.org)

**sample**- All the percentages presented in this report are based on weighted data, the unweighted sample sizes are shown in the tables. (gov.scot)

**general**- Many of the topics discussed in this chapter pertain to experimental data in general, but the context of their use and examples given are in the field of toxicology. (springer.com)
- Data related to the influence of general anesthesia on the normal myocardial circulation are limited. (biomedsearch.com)

**produce**- Given a set of data and the desire to produce some kind of model of those data, there are a variety of functions that can be chosen for the fit. (wikipedia.org)

**trends**- Before considering trends in real data, it is useful to understand trends in random data. (wikipedia.org)

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