Loading...


  • modulate
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Two cytokines that down modulate FLT3 activity (& block FLT3-induced hematopoietic activity) are: TNF-Alpha (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) TGF-Beta (Transforming growth factor-beta) TGF-Beta especially, decreases FLT3 protein levels and reverses the FLT3L-induced decrease in the time that hematopoietic progenitors spend in the G1-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • including potent inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase-1, and suppression of the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in various cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • IMP321 is a 200 kDA soluble dimeric recombinant fusion protein of the extracellular portion of LAG3 with immunoglobulin, designed to activate antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigators for this work used influenza matrix protein antigen and the tumor antigens Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin when seeking this CD8+ T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is synthesized as a prohormone with an unusually long and atypical signal sequence, which is absent from the mature secreted cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • FASL, a cell surface protein involved in cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAG-3 is a membrane protein on Tr1 cells that negatively regulates TCR-mediated signal transduction in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Tumor cells and tumor-associated immune cells express this inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule that interrupts normal signalling of T cell and subsequent immune responses in the tumor microenvironment by binding to PD-1 receptors. (drugbank.ca)
  • The drug has activity as a selective co-stimulation modulator with inhibitory activity on T lymphocytes. (drugbank.ca)
  • In fact, the endothelial layer can constitute immunological synapses due to its close interactions with immune cells, and the delivery of co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immature DCs express intermediate amounts of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II and co-stimulatory molecules, high amounts of co-inhibitory molecules, and immunosuppressive cytokines, thus inducing anergy of effector T cells and expansion of Treg ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • human
  • Biological activity was determined by its ability to chemoattract human T - Lymphocytes using a concentration of 10 - 50 ng/ml. (genetex.com)
  • Fifty-one new C-methyl-modified derivatives of the anthraquinones chrysophanol and emodin or their various methyl ethers were prepared for structure-activity relationship studies of anticancer activity against mouse leukemia L1210 and human leukemia HL-60 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the previous study, we have proved that extracts of A. blazei inhibit human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). (hindawi.com)
  • In the previous study, we have proved that ethanolic extracts from A. blazei inhibit cytokine productions and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) induced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Normal Human peripheral blood cells. (abcam.com)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • During Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, TIGIT expressing CD8+ T cells has been shown to be expanded and associated with clinical markers of HIV disease progression in a diverse group of HIV infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of a partially purified human BCGF on murine assays for B-cell stimulatory factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • All human T cells express roughly 300 Kv1.3 channels per cell along with 10-20 calcium-activated KCa3.1 channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among human B cells, naive and early memory B cells express small numbers of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 channels when they are quiescent, and augment KCa3.1 expression after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resting human Tr1 cells express Th1 assosiated chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5, and Th2-associated CCR3, CCR4 and CCR8. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Technically, it is an ex-vivo cellular immune assay that occurs between two allogeneic lymphocyte populations (same species but genetically distinct). (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, Kv1.3 blockers paralyze effector-memory T cells at the sites of inflammation and prevent their reactivation in inflamed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo Tr1 cells need to be activated, to be able to exert their regulatory effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ways of Tr1 cells induction in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro differ and also envelope many different approaches but the molecular mechanism, till this day, appears to be conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Martin-Fontecha A, Thomsen LL, Brett S, Gerard C, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Induced recruitment of NK cells to lymph nodes provides IFN-g for Th1 priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay set-up consists of purifying responder lymphocytes from peripheral blood, thymus, lymph nodes or spleen and co-culturing with stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Kv1.3 blockers do not affect the homing to and motility within lymph nodes of naive and central memory T cells, most likely because these cells express the KCa3.1 channel and are, therefore, protected from the effect of Kv1.3 blockade. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Endothelial cells can also regulate immune cell activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In tumor conditions, the vasculature is characterized by an abnormal vessel structure and permeability, and by a specific phenotype of endothelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is hypothesized that in ischemia, sepsis and nephrotoxic models that the initial insult results in morphological and/or functional changes in vascular endothelial cells and/or in tubular epithelium. (hindawi.com)
  • immune
  • Mechanistic investigations showed that BDCA1 + CD14 + cells expressed high levels of the immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 to hinder T-cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The endothelium is nowadays described as an entire organ that regulates various processes: vascular tone, coagulation, inflammation, and immune cell trafficking, depending on the vascular site and its specific microenvironment as well as on endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms like epigenetic changes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In physiological conditions, the endothelium acts as a barrier regulating cell trafficking by specific expression of adhesion molecules enabling adhesion of immune cells on the vessel, and subsequent extravasation. (frontiersin.org)
  • RAC1 in keratinocytes regulates crosstalk to immune cells by Arp2/3 dependent control of STAT1. (biokemi.org)
  • Such membrane-bound TNF ligands frequently signal back to the immune cells when they contact and bind their cognate receptors on other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cellular response to the histocompatibility antigens that occurs in the MLR is also involved in cell-mediated immune responses within an individual and offered an in vitro correlate of cellular immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, it should be possible to selectively suppress effector-memory T cells with a Kv1.3-specific blocker and thereby ameliorate many autoimmune diseases without compromising the protective immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some patients, the malignant cell clone can become the dominant proliferating cell type, leading to frank lymphoma, a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed Primary hypereosinophelia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorder characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant transformation of these stem or precursor cells results in the development of various hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to CD138 (the traditional plasma cell marker), CD319/SLAMF7 is much more stable and allows robust isolation of malignant plasma cells from delayed or even cryopreserved samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • 4-1BBL, an inducible T cell surface molecule that contributes to T-cell stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macagno A, Molteni M, Rinaldi A, Bertoni F, Lanzavecchia A, Rossetti C, Sallusto F. A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-associated myelin-specific T cells from the blood are predominantly co-stimulation-independent effector-memory T cells that express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • B activation, and cytokine transcripts and productions of PBMC. (hindawi.com)
  • Involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte activation. (abcam.com)
  • Although there are multiple pathways and cell types involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, evidence suggests that T-cell activation may play an important role in the immunopathology of the disease. (drugbank.ca)
  • Blockade of this interaction has been shown to inhibit the delivery of the second co-stimulatory signal required for optimal activation of T-cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • This results in the inhibition of autoimmune T-Cell activation that has been implcated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (drugbank.ca)
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD27L, a cytokine that plays a role in T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Toll like receptors and innate immunity in B cell activation and antibody responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macagno A, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Duration, combination and timing: the signal integration model of dendritic cell activation.Trends Immunol 2007, in press. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A. Central memory and effector memory T cells: activation, maintenance and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays an essential role in T cell proliferation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation, naive and central memory T cells increase expression of the KCa3.1 channel to approximately 500 channels per cell, while effector-memory T cells increase expression of the Kv1.3 channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, class-switched memory B cells express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels per cell (about 1500/cell) and this number increases after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells with other antigen specificities in these patients were naive or central memory T cells that upregulate the KCa3.1 channel upon activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tr1 cells do not constitutively express FOXP3 but only transiently, upon their activation and in smaller amounts then CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • This initial phosphorylation event further activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, which in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • This inhibition was not related to cell viability. (hindawi.com)
  • TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its interaction with PVR and the activity is directed through its ITIM domain TIGIT regulates T-cell mediated immunity via the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cell
  • Soluble LAG3 was first established as a dendritic cell activator in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in March 1999 a key paper in the Journal of Immunology from scientists at the University of Montreal, on which Triebel was listed as a co-author, demonstrated soluble LAG3's role as a dendritic cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • A March 2006 online paper in Vaccine showed, in animal models, that IMP321 could immunopotentiate therapeutic vaccines by inducing dendritic cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Tr1 cells are self or non-self antigen specific and their key role is to induce and maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress tissue inflammation in autoimmunity and graft vs. host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 alone can induce IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, but in the absence of TGF-β, the cells produce large quantities of both IFN-γ and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • For research purposes, the MLR cell-based assay continues to provide an in vitro correlate of T cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1964. Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Alm, G.V. and R.D. Peterson: Effect of thymectomy and bursectomy and the in vitro response of chick spleen cells to PHA sheep erythrocytes and allogeneic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • As a novel anticancer immunotherapy, durvalumab enhances T cell responses at tumor sites. (drugbank.ca)
  • Blocking these pathways with novel targeted monoclonal antibodies synergistically rejuvenated HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • This population consists of a clone of eosinophils, i.e. a group of genetically identical eosinophils derived from a sufficiently mutated ancestor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector memory T cel
  • T cells in MS lesions in postmortem brain lesions are also predominantly effector-memory T cells that express high levels of the Kv1.3 channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children with type-1 diabetes mellitus, the disease-associated insulin- and GAD65-specific T cells isolated from the blood are effector-memory T cells that express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels, and the same is true of T cells from the synovial joint fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • C 21 H 33 O 3 ) from A. blazei investigated its regulatory effects on cytokine productions and cell proliferation of PBMC induced by PHA. (hindawi.com)
  • Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies FoxP3 regulatory T cells in inflamed synovia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also express repressor of GATA-3 (ROG), while CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory cells do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27, together with TGF-β induces IL-10-producing regulatory T cells with Tr1-like properties cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging (senescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide was also shown to activate PKCζ, implicating it to the inhibition of AKT, regulation of the voltage difference between the interior and exterior of the cell (membrane potential) and signaling functions that favor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Gene transfer for cytokine functional studies in the lung: the multifunctional role of GM-CSF in pulmonary inflammation. (springer.com)
  • GITRL is encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. (novusbio.com)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clarifying the gene targets of Foxp3 could be crucial to the comprehension of the suppressive abilities of Treg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Patients with evidence of a vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T-cell proliferative or IFNγ response 1 week after vaccination had a markedly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 5 years (63% versus 18%, P = 0.037) than nonresponders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • citation needed] Tumor development is a complex process that requires cell division, growth, and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors showed that the metastatic potential of oncogenic mammary epithelial cells required an autocrine PDGF/PDGFR signaling loop, and that cooperation of autocrine PDGFR signaling with oncogenic was required for survival during EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • The BCR-ABL transcript encodes a tyrosine kinase, which activates mediators of the cell cycle regulation system, leading to a clonal myeloproliferative disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • the latter effect was dependent on the presence of adherent cells.In vivo, significant enhancement of lymphocyte reactivity to T-mitogens and increase of CD4+ helper-inducer T lymphocytes were observed 3 d after a subcutaneous application of Olimunostim to mice with cellular immune deficiency. (naver.com)
  • tissues
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In autoimmune disease, a deficiency of regulatory T cell activity can allow other autoimmune cells to attack the body's own tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • CD19 expression is restricted to members of the B cell lineage. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Foxp3 is a specific marker of natural T regulatory cells (nTregs, a lineage of T cells) and adaptive/induced T regulatory cells (a/iTregs), also identified by other less specific markers such as CD25 or CD45RB. (wikipedia.org)
  • While CD4+ cells are heavily regulated and require multiple transcription factors such as STAT-5 and AhR in order to become active and function properly, Foxp3 has been identified as the master regulator for Treg lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • The VIP/DC-induced Treg resemble the previously described Tr1 in terms of phenotype and cytokine profile, suppress primarily Th1 responses including delayed-type hypersensitivity, and transfer suppression to naive hosts. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally we found that these triggered NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype as opposed to non-activated cells in individuals or in healthy donors showing a CD45RA+RO? (extremebiology.net)
  • phenotype much like na?ve T cells. (extremebiology.net)
  • autocrine
  • It is generally released from damaged immune cells and signals through its receptor ST2 in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, plays important roles in type-2 innate immunity,and functions as an "alarmin" or a danger signal for cellular damage or cellular stress. (transpopmed.org)
  • Patients
  • 50 cells/ μ L. With the increasing longevity of these patients due to the use of HAART, treatment of IRU may become an issue in the future. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients exhibit an increase in the production of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notably we found that triggered NK cells from hematological malignancy patients possess non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. (extremebiology.net)
  • Patients with RD have a genetic defect that affects the T cells and at least one other type of immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, patients with tumors have a local relative excess of Foxp3 positive T cells which inhibits the body's ability to suppress the formation of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, patients with an autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a relative dysfunction of Foxp3 positive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucosal
  • Studies of acute and early CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection in man and SIV mac infection in rhesus macaques have demonstrated that CD4 + T cells at mucosal sites, particularly within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are preferentially targeted and depleted [ 1 - 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • More recently it has been suggested that there is selective depletion of the Th17 cells from the GI tract- and that the loss of these cells may result in loss of mucosal integrity, translocation of microbial products, immune activation and subsequent CD4 + T cell loss [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • induce
  • A clinical study subsequently confirmed that an intranodal DC injection was more likely to induce peptide-specific T-cell responses than intradermal or intravenous injections ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • body's
  • Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are capable of activating up to 20% of the body's T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by polyclonal activation of both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes with the release of inflammatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, they observed that retinal cells also demonstrated increased cell activation as evidenced by augmented expression of GFAP, which is due to the activation of Muller glial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Activation of natural killer cells and cytokine production in man by bacterial extracts. (naver.com)
  • HIV-1 replication is controlled at the level of T cell activation and proviral integration. (naver.com)
  • However, increased levels of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation were documented in cells and plasma of HIV-uninfected IDU subjects compared to non-injectors. (omicsonline.org)
  • This suggests that Dock10 may have a role in B-cell activation and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when it is systemically released in the blood and in high levels (due to mass T-cell activation resulting from the SAg binding), it can cause severe and life-threatening symptoms, including shock and multiple organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This displaces the antigenic peptide away from the TCR and circumvents the normal mechanism for T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated cytoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Phenotypic and functional separation of memory and effector human CD8+ T cells. (naver.com)
  • In rhesus macaques rapid progression to simian AIDS has been associated with failure to regenerate critical effector immune cells at the tissue/environment interface, whereas in the remainder of infected animals, a striking proliferative response presumably derived from the naïve and central memory T cell compartment is observed [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • cognate
  • This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows it to bind the TCR for a lengthy enough time period, and the SAg mimics this temporal bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Blocking these pathways with novel targeted monoclonal antibodies synergistically rejuvenated HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • immunity
  • These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. (jci.org)
  • A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. (wikipedia.org)