• modulate
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Most recently we have shown that CCN1/Cyr61 can also modulate cell death in certain cells and can promote cell death in response to TNFa. (rochester.edu)
  • Two cytokines that down modulate FLT3 activity (& block FLT3-induced hematopoietic activity) are: TNF-Alpha (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) TGF-Beta (Transforming growth factor-beta) TGF-Beta especially, decreases FLT3 protein levels and reverses the FLT3L-induced decrease in the time that hematopoietic progenitors spend in the G1-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory cytokines
  • Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • subsets
  • PBMCs, total-T cells and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) were stimulated with IL 2, IL 7 or IL 15 and exposed to cultured BM-MSCs and ACs at varying cell:cell ratio either in contact or in transwell conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Understanding the generation and function of memory T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • My research focuses on elucidating the mechanism(s) of cell death and survival of primary alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts in response to the extracellular matrix associated signaling molecule, CCN1/Cyr61. (rochester.edu)
  • 24 hrs) after LPS treatment, suggesting that CCN1/Cyr61, in addition to playing a role in apoptosis and cell survival, is likely to be involved in the initial inflammatory response as well. (rochester.edu)
  • Both B cell tumors are fatal, and treatment to date prolongs survival by a few years at best ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • malignant
  • Some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some patients, the malignant cell clone can become the dominant proliferating cell type, leading to frank lymphoma, a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed Primary hypereosinophelia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorder characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant transformation of these stem or precursor cells results in the development of various hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to CD138 (the traditional plasma cell marker), CD319/SLAMF7 is much more stable and allows robust isolation of malignant plasma cells from delayed or even cryopreserved samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulator
  • After several days, lymphocytes underwent blast transformation, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC Class I and II) differences between the two cell populations designated as Responder and Stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responder cells proliferated without previous exposure to Stimulator MHC antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulator cell populations that also contain T-cells (Two way mixed lymphocyte reaction) will replicate in the presence of the Responder cells, therefore for a One way mixed lymphocyte reaction, stimulator cells are prevented from replicating by irradiation or treatment with mitomycin C, a DNA crosslinker to prevent cell replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • A March 2006 online paper in Vaccine showed, in animal models, that IMP321 could immunopotentiate therapeutic vaccines by inducing dendritic cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • The mechanism of suppression by the CD4(+) CD25(high) cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other factors. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Production of an interleukin-10, an endogenous, pro-regulatory cytokine, has also been implicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha, formerly known as Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), is a cytokine that is inhibited by interleukin 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. (wikipedia.org)
  • These same aberrant T cell immunophenotypes are found in lymphocyte-variant eosinophilia, a disease in which the aberrant T cells overproduce cytokines such as interleukin 5 which simulate the proliferation of eosinophil precursor cells and are thereby responsible for the eosinophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The pathology of all of these diseases is characterized by initial injury to the epithelium, an extensive inflammatory response, and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) leading to the aberrant healing of the injury. (rochester.edu)
  • In the context of the lung, I have found that CCN1/Cyr61 together with TNFa causes apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts. (rochester.edu)
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily refers to a superfamily of cytokines that can cause cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Because CCN1/Cyr61 has been shown to be induced in the lungs of patients with COPD and ARDS, I hypothesize that CCN1/Cyr61, together with inflammatory mediators such as TNFa causes cell death of primary lung cells in vivo, thus contributing to lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • My research goals include determining a role for CCN1/Cyr61 in lung injury and inflammation and defining the mechanism by which CCN1/Cyr61 and TNFa cause cell death of lung cells in vivo. (rochester.edu)
  • Our study provides the first evidence of the regulatory function of CD4(+) CD25(+) cells in horses and offers insights into ex vivo manipulation of Treg cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Technically, it is an ex-vivo cellular immune assay that occurs between two allogeneic lymphocyte populations (same species but genetically distinct). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. (mdpi.com)
  • These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE 2 and PGD 2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. (mdpi.com)
  • TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its interaction with PVR and the activity is directed through its ITIM domain TIGIT regulates T-cell mediated immunity via the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Martin-Fontecha A, Thomsen LL, Brett S, Gerard C, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Induced recruitment of NK cells to lymph nodes provides IFN-g for Th1 priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • including potent inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase-1, and suppression of the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in various cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neither enhancement nor inhibition required cell-cell contact. (bmj.com)
  • immunology
  • However, in March 1999 a key paper in the Journal of Immunology from scientists at the University of Montreal, on which Triebel was listed as a co-author, demonstrated soluble LAG3's role as a dendritic cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Biological activity was determined by its ability to chemoattract human T - Lymphocytes using a concentration of 10 - 50 ng/ml. (genetex.com)
  • While many investigations have characterized the potential roles of KSHV gene products in B cell tumorigenesis using cell lines and single-gene studies, direct evidence that KSHV infection of human B cells leads to KSHV-associated tumors is lacking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD80 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD80 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. (creativebiomart.net)
  • An April 2006 paper in Cancer Research showed, in vitro, that IMP321 would induce an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response in human PBMCs, with the T cells thus created being cytotoxic and capable of producing Tc1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • During Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, TIGIT expressing CD8+ T cells has been shown to be expanded and associated with clinical markers of HIV disease progression in a diverse group of HIV infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of a partially purified human BCGF on murine assays for B-cell stimulatory factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being used by researchers in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, to artificially reconstruct human tissue which has been previously damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help discover the therapeutic uses of these stem cells they are grown in laboratories or by using medication to stimulate new cell growth within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • There is a dichotomous effect of MSCs/ACs on lymphocytes proliferating in response to the homeostatic IL 2, IL 7 and IL 15 cytokines likely to be encountered in both homeostatic and autoimmune inflammatory conditions. (bmj.com)
  • This should be taken into account when planning cellular therapy for autoimmune disease (AD) using stromal derived cells such as MSCs. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, an ideal treatment must possess both immunomodulating properties to control irregular autoimmune responses to prevent further damage and regenerative properties to stimulate natural repair mechanisms and replace damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Such membrane-bound TNF ligands frequently signal back to the immune cells when they contact and bind their cognate receptors on other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine kinase
  • This initial phosphorylation event further activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, which in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of the cytokine TNFa is a hallmark of lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD27L, a cytokine that plays a role in T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Toll like receptors and innate immunity in B cell activation and antibody responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macagno A, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Duration, combination and timing: the signal integration model of dendritic cell activation.Trends Immunol 2007, in press. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A. Central memory and effector memory T cells: activation, maintenance and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. (mdpi.com)
  • Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. (mdpi.com)
  • responses
  • Thus, NK cells have important roles during the initial responses to viruses and cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Blocking these pathways with novel targeted monoclonal antibodies synergistically rejuvenated HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of T cell-restricted genes, and signatures for different T cell responses, using a comprehensive collection of microarray datasets. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cellular response to the histocompatibility antigens that occurs in the MLR is also involved in cell-mediated immune responses within an individual and offered an in vitro correlate of cellular immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Chapter 6 CD8 T cells: potential therapeutic targets? (uva.nl)
  • Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the name given to a B-cell proliferation due to therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in the treatment of MS are still very much up to debate among stem cell researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • spleen
  • 6. Alm, G.V. and R.D. Peterson: Effect of thymectomy and bursectomy and the in vitro response of chick spleen cells to PHA sheep erythrocytes and allogeneic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Equine CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells exhibit regulatory activity by close contact and cytokine-dependent mechanisms in vitro. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies FoxP3 regulatory T cells in inflamed synovia. (wikipedia.org)
  • BLAST
  • Absent these causes, patients were diagnosed in the World Health Organization's classification as having either 1) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified, (CEL-NOS) if blood or bone marrow blast cells exceeded 2% or 5% of total nucleated cells, respectively, and other criteria were met or 2) idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) if there was evidence of eosinophil-induced tissue damage but no criteria indicating chronic eosinophilic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of wild-type FLT3 have been reported for blast cells of some AML patients without FLT3 mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocytes
  • No MLR occurred when the Responder cells came from thymectomized animals, whereas bursectomized chicken leukocytes reacted in culture demonstrating that T-cells were the major cell type in Responder cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • However, little is known about the nature of the specific B cell subtype(s) most susceptible to infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is suggested that most forms of Gleich's syndrome are due to a similar aberrant T cell mechanism and are a subtype of lymphocyte-variant eosinophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • This population consists of a clone of eosinophils, i.e. a group of genetically identical eosinophils derived from a sufficiently mutated ancestor cell. (wikipedia.org)