• modulate
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Most recently we have shown that CCN1/Cyr61 can also modulate cell death in certain cells and can promote cell death in response to TNFa. (rochester.edu)
  • Two cytokines that down modulate FLT3 activity (& block FLT3-induced hematopoietic activity) are: TNF-Alpha (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) TGF-Beta (Transforming growth factor-beta) TGF-Beta especially, decreases FLT3 protein levels and reverses the FLT3L-induced decrease in the time that hematopoietic progenitors spend in the G1-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD80
  • Flow Cytometric analysis of normal Human peripheral blood cells labeling CD80 with ab155374 (filled histogram) at 1 µg/test in 100 µl final volume or an equal amount of Mouse IgG1 kappa Isotype Control PE-Cy5 (open histogram). (abcam.com)
  • CTLA4 is a naturally occurring protein which is expressed on the surface of T-cells some hours or days after full T-cell activation and is capable of binding to CD80/86 on antigen-presenting cells with much greater affinity than CD28. (drugbank.ca)
  • Binding of CTLA4-Ig to CD80/86 provides a negative feedback mechanism which results in T-cell deactivation. (drugbank.ca)
  • Abatacept is a selective costimulation modulator, like CTLA-4, the drug has shown to inhibit T-cell (T lymphocyte) activation by binding to CD80 and CD86, thereby blocking interaction with CD28. (drugbank.ca)
  • CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like arrangement. (genecards.org)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD80 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD80 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. (creativebiomart.net)
  • vivo
  • Because CCN1/Cyr61 has been shown to be induced in the lungs of patients with COPD and ARDS, I hypothesize that CCN1/Cyr61, together with inflammatory mediators such as TNFa causes cell death of primary lung cells in vivo, thus contributing to lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • My research goals include determining a role for CCN1/Cyr61 in lung injury and inflammation and defining the mechanism by which CCN1/Cyr61 and TNFa cause cell death of lung cells in vivo. (rochester.edu)
  • Our study provides the first evidence of the regulatory function of CD4(+) CD25(+) cells in horses and offers insights into ex vivo manipulation of Treg cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Subsequent work detected KSHV DNA sequences specifically in the CD19 + (B cell) fraction of the peripheral blood of KSHV-infected patients ( 16 , 17 ), and B cells from seronegative individuals were infectable ex vivo with KSHV isolated from a patient's tumor ( 17 , 18 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta), two related cytokines produced by lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, Kv1.3 blockers paralyze effector-memory T cells at the sites of inflammation and prevent their reactivation in inflamed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo Tr1 cells need to be activated, to be able to exert their regulatory effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytolitic activity: Tr1 cells can both express Granzyme A and granzyme B. It was shown recently, that Tr1 cells, in vitro and also ex vivo, specifically lyse cells of myeloid origin, but not other APC or T or B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ways of Tr1 cells induction in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro differ and also envelope many different approaches but the molecular mechanism, till this day, appears to be conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technically, it is an ex-vivo cellular immune assay that occurs between two allogeneic lymphocyte populations (same species but genetically distinct). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Abatacept is a soluble fusion protein, which links the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) to the modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). (drugbank.ca)
  • Known as a recombinant fusion protein, the drug consists of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG 1 . (drugbank.ca)
  • An April 2006 paper in Cancer Research showed, in vitro, that IMP321 would induce an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response in human PBMCs, with the T cells thus created being cytotoxic and capable of producing Tc1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Upon stimulation with a combination of concanavalin A, TGF-β1 and IL-2, CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells which express FoxP3 and have suppressive capability were induced from CD4(+) CD25(-) cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Thus, in horses as in man, the circulating CD4(+) CD25(high) subpopulation contains natural Treg cells and functional Treg can be induced in vitro upon appropriate stimulation. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • 4-1BBL, an inducible T cell surface molecule that contributes to T-cell stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macagno A, Molteni M, Rinaldi A, Bertoni F, Lanzavecchia A, Rossetti C, Sallusto F. A cyanobacterial LPS antagonist prevents endotoxin shock and blocks sustained TLR4 stimulation required for cytokine expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-associated myelin-specific T cells from the blood are predominantly co-stimulation-independent effector-memory T cells that express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some patients, the malignant cell clone can become the dominant proliferating cell type, leading to frank lymphoma, a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed Primary hypereosinophelia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorder characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant transformation of these stem or precursor cells results in the development of various hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to CD138 (the traditional plasma cell marker), CD319/SLAMF7 is much more stable and allows robust isolation of malignant plasma cells from delayed or even cryopreserved samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Biological activity was determined by its ability to chemoattract human T - Lymphocytes using a concentration of 10 - 50 ng/ml. (genetex.com)
  • Normal Human peripheral blood cells. (abcam.com)
  • To identify this subset and to determine whether infection alters its cellular phenotype, we exposed human tonsillar cells to KSHV and characterized infected cells using high-throughput multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While many investigations have characterized the potential roles of KSHV gene products in B cell tumorigenesis using cell lines and single-gene studies, direct evidence that KSHV infection of human B cells leads to KSHV-associated tumors is lacking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • During Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, TIGIT expressing CD8+ T cells has been shown to be expanded and associated with clinical markers of HIV disease progression in a diverse group of HIV infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of a partially purified human BCGF on murine assays for B-cell stimulatory factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • All human T cells express roughly 300 Kv1.3 channels per cell along with 10-20 calcium-activated KCa3.1 channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among human B cells, naive and early memory B cells express small numbers of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 channels when they are quiescent, and augment KCa3.1 expression after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resting human Tr1 cells express Th1 assosiated chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5, and Th2-associated CCR3, CCR4 and CCR8. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • including potent inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase-1, and suppression of the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in various cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte activation. (abcam.com)
  • Although there are multiple pathways and cell types involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, evidence suggests that T-cell activation may play an important role in the immunopathology of the disease. (drugbank.ca)
  • Blockade of this interaction has been shown to inhibit the delivery of the second co-stimulatory signal required for optimal activation of T-cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • This results in the inhibition of autoimmune T-Cell activation that has been implcated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (drugbank.ca)
  • Activation of the cytokine TNFa is a hallmark of lung injury. (rochester.edu)
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD27L, a cytokine that plays a role in T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Toll like receptors and innate immunity in B cell activation and antibody responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macagno A, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Duration, combination and timing: the signal integration model of dendritic cell activation.Trends Immunol 2007, in press. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A. Central memory and effector memory T cells: activation, maintenance and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays an essential role in T cell proliferation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation, naive and central memory T cells increase expression of the KCa3.1 channel to approximately 500 channels per cell, while effector-memory T cells increase expression of the Kv1.3 channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, class-switched memory B cells express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels per cell (about 1500/cell) and this number increases after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells with other antigen specificities in these patients were naive or central memory T cells that upregulate the KCa3.1 channel upon activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tr1 cells do not constitutively express FOXP3 but only transiently, upon their activation and in smaller amounts then CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The pathology of all of these diseases is characterized by initial injury to the epithelium, an extensive inflammatory response, and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) leading to the aberrant healing of the injury. (rochester.edu)
  • In the context of the lung, I have found that CCN1/Cyr61 together with TNFa causes apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts. (rochester.edu)
  • 24 hrs) after LPS treatment, suggesting that CCN1/Cyr61, in addition to playing a role in apoptosis and cell survival, is likely to be involved in the initial inflammatory response as well. (rochester.edu)
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily refers to a superfamily of cytokines that can cause cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Mechanistic investigations showed that BDCA1 + CD14 + cells expressed high levels of the immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 to hinder T-cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • My research focuses on elucidating the mechanism(s) of cell death and survival of primary alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts in response to the extracellular matrix associated signaling molecule, CCN1/Cyr61. (rochester.edu)
  • endothelial cells
  • It is hypothesized that in ischemia, sepsis and nephrotoxic models that the initial insult results in morphological and/or functional changes in vascular endothelial cells and/or in tubular epithelium. (hindawi.com)
  • tumor cells
  • This immunosuppression is not restricted to the tumor milieu, as tumor cells were shown to secrete several factors promoting the accumulation of MDSCs in peripheral tissues ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PD1 signalling pathway serves to physiologically limit the activity of T cells and autoimmune or inflammatory responses in the body however can be a mechanism of immunity resistance by tumor cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • regulatory
  • Equine CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells exhibit regulatory activity by close contact and cytokine-dependent mechanisms in vitro. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies FoxP3 regulatory T cells in inflamed synovia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also express repressor of GATA-3 (ROG), while CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory cells do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27, together with TGF-β induces IL-10-producing regulatory T cells with Tr1-like properties cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In addition, we studied the in vitro induction of CD4(+) Treg and their characteristics compared to those of freshly isolated CD4(+) Treg cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This cellular response to the histocompatibility antigens that occurs in the MLR is also involved in cell-mediated immune responses within an individual and offered an in vitro correlate of cellular immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • For research purposes, the MLR cell-based assay continues to provide an in vitro correlate of T cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1964. Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Alm, G.V. and R.D. Peterson: Effect of thymectomy and bursectomy and the in vitro response of chick spleen cells to PHA sheep erythrocytes and allogeneic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine kinase
  • This initial phosphorylation event further activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, which in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the existence of CD4(+) Treg cells in horses, determine their suppressive function as well as their mechanism of action. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The mechanism of suppression by the CD4(+) CD25(high) cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other factors. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • It is suggested that most forms of Gleich's syndrome are due to a similar aberrant T cell mechanism and are a subtype of lymphocyte-variant eosinophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocytes
  • No MLR occurred when the Responder cells came from thymectomized animals, whereas bursectomized chicken leukocytes reacted in culture demonstrating that T-cells were the major cell type in Responder cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Tr1 cells are self or non-self antigen specific and their key role is to induce and maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress tissue inflammation in autoimmunity and graft vs. host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 alone can induce IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, but in the absence of TGF-β, the cells produce large quantities of both IFN-γ and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • However, calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and ciclosporin), used as immunosuppressants in organ transplantation inhibit T cell function, and can prevent the control of the B cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunology
  • However, in March 1999 a key paper in the Journal of Immunology from scientists at the University of Montreal, on which Triebel was listed as a co-author, demonstrated soluble LAG3's role as a dendritic cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • Consequently, it should be possible to selectively suppress effector-memory T cells with a Kv1.3-specific blocker and thereby ameliorate many autoimmune diseases without compromising the protective immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its interaction with PVR and the activity is directed through its ITIM domain TIGIT regulates T-cell mediated immunity via the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • As a novel anticancer immunotherapy, durvalumab enhances T cell responses at tumor sites. (drugbank.ca)
  • Blocking these pathways with novel targeted monoclonal antibodies synergistically rejuvenated HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • This population consists of a clone of eosinophils, i.e. a group of genetically identical eosinophils derived from a sufficiently mutated ancestor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector memory T cel
  • T cells in MS lesions in postmortem brain lesions are also predominantly effector-memory T cells that express high levels of the Kv1.3 channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children with type-1 diabetes mellitus, the disease-associated insulin- and GAD65-specific T cells isolated from the blood are effector-memory T cells that express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels, and the same is true of T cells from the synovial joint fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Pretreatment with E6201 cream attenuated phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, a marker of proliferation in epidermis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rasheed AU, Rahn HP, Sallusto F, Lipp M, Muller G. Follicular B helper T cell activity is confined to CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells and is independent of CD57 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Chapter 6 CD8 T cells: potential therapeutic targets? (uva.nl)
  • A March 2006 online paper in Vaccine showed, in animal models, that IMP321 could immunopotentiate therapeutic vaccines by inducing dendritic cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the name given to a B-cell proliferation due to therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)