• 1999
  • 1999. Pharmacology of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999 ). Intraperitoneal IL1β or LPS administration induce the expression of the activation marker c-Fos in vagal primary afferent neurons, indicating that cytokines activate vagus afferents and relay this information to the brain (Goehler et al. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • At least 2 leptin genes (lepa and lepb) exist in the crown-clade (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a heterodimeric cytokine encoded by two separate genes, IL-12A (p35) and IL-12B (p40). (wikipedia.org)
  • The elicitation of different TLRs/IL-1Rs results in similar signaling cascades due to their homologous TIR motif leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which initiates a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and AP-1-dependent transcriptional response of pro-inflammatory genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • We examined a variety of IL-1 activities in vitro, including proliferative effect on T cells, antiproliferative effect on myeloid leukemia cells and melanoma cells, stimulatory effects on IL-6 syntheisi by melanoma cells and PGE2 synthesis by fibroblast cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The active mature IL-1 cytokines could mediate a large range of biological activities such as innate and adaptive immunity as well as bio-components of the acute phase reaction, including the febrile response, secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACIH), and the synthesis of acute phase proteins . (proteopedia.org)
  • 1 Local plaque synthesis of IL-1 is well established in atherosclerosis, and in particular, ECs are an abundant source of IL-1 at the luminal surface and in the adventitial capillaries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because IL-1β is upregulated in the endothelium of atherosclerotic vessels, we studied the distribution and synthesis of IL-1ra in atherosclerosis and in cultured ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Like many cytokines OSM is produced from cells by de novo synthesis followed by release through the classical secretion pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • 2011 ). Binding of acetylcholine to its cognate receptor, α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), on cytokine producing cells inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-kB and inflammasome activation, and suppresses cytokine production (Wang et al. (springer.com)
  • recombinant
  • In this study we attempted to develop IL-1 with less deleterious effects by chemically introducing oligosaccharides to recombinant human IL-1alpha. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Y.Takei,T.Chiba,K.Wada,H.Hayashi M.Yamada,J.Kuwashima,K.Onozaki: 'Glycosylated human recombinant interleukin 1α,neo IL-1α,with D-mannose dimer exhibits selective activities in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aldesleukin is a form of recombinant interleukin-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is suggested to mediate MP actions, limited knowledge is available on its expression and possible function after SCI. (jneurosci.org)
  • The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for internalization of the HIV-1 tat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rønnestad and colleagues recently detected five isoforms of the leptin receptor (lepr) that have differences in 3'-end of the mRNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only intracellular IL-1ra type I mRNA was detected in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) when they were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide/phorbol myristate acetate and transforming growth factor-β. (ahajournals.org)
  • kinase
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in interleukin 1 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is reported to promote survival of progenitor myeloid cells through the insulin receptor substrate-2/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 5-h incubated rings, either the I-κB kinase inhibitor 3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile (Bay 11-7082) or the proteasome activity inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO (MG-132) inhibited the development of the BK B 1 receptor-sensitized contractile responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) associated kinase (IRAK) family plays a crucial role in the protective response to pathogens introduced into the human body by inducing acute inflammation followed by additional adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two are active kinases, IRAK-1 and IRAK-4, and two are inactive, IRAK-2 and IRAK-M, but all regulate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 stimulates IRAK-4 to the IL-1R complex initiating the Toll/IL-1 receptor signaling cascade upstream of IRAKs, so the deletion of IRAK-1 does not abolish the activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence analysis of IRAK's domains revealed many conserved amino acids with the serine/threonine specific protein kinase Pelle in Drosphila, that functions downstream of a Toll receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even cells without over-expressed IL-1 receptors showed kinase activity when exposed to IL-1, and were able to co-precipitate a protein kinase with endogenous IL-1 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the human IL-1 receptor's accessory protein was named Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • All IRAK KDs have an ATP binding pocket with an invariable lysine residue in subdomain II, however, only IRAK-1 and IRAK-4 have an aspartate residue in the catalytic site of subdomain VI, which is thought to be critical for kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAK1 is a human tyrosine kinase protein essential for signaling for certain type I and type II cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL: Two types of murine helper T cell clone. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • This gene, IL8RB , a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, and IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, α-helix 1 for lepa2 appears to be split by a short-disordered region, and may therefore have a poorer affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of the conserved tertiary structure of Lep is most likely explained by requirements for specific LepR-binding affinity and is constrained by the structure of the receptor-binding pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • IRAK-M negatively regulates TLR signaling by inhibiting the IRAK-4/IRAK-1 complex The newest described IRAK family member, IRAK-4, has been found to be critical for the recruitment of IRAK-1 and for its activation/degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Publications] D.Yang,H.Hayashi,Y.Hiyama T.Takii,K.Onozaki: 'Transfectionon of human melanoma cells with ytpe I interleukin-1(IL-1)receptor cDNA them IL-1 responsive and revealed the improtance of ODC activity down-regulation in IL-1-induced growth inhibition. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Molecular
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microorganisms by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and IL-1R family members respond the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of OSM to signal via two receptor complexes conveniently offers a molecular explanation to the shared and unique effects of OSM with respect to LIF. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Though the basic paradigm was discovered more than 15 years ago, new discoveries continue to be made that offer fresh insights into the regulation of this process (1). (springer.com)
  • Selective up-regulation of chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 upon activation of polarized human type 2 Th cells. (springer.com)
  • In isolated human umbilical vein (HUV), a spontaneous BK B 1 receptor up-regulation and sensitization process has been demonstrated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • IRAK
  • Some special/significant features of each IRAK family member: There is some evidence that IRAK-1 functions in regulating other signaling cascades leading to NF-kB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One signaling pathway in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) may be dependent on the function of IRAK-1 in its signaling pathway for its activation and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies associated IRAKs with multiple signalling pathways triggered by interleukin, and specified multiple IRAK types. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. (springer.com)
  • Sallusto F, Lenig D, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A: Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • GR expression sharply increased at 4 hr (22-fold), peaked at 8 hr (56-fold), rapidly declined at 1 d, and returned to the baseline level at and after 3 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • IL-2 stimulates the expression of two IL-12 receptors, IL-12R-β1 and IL-12R-β2, maintaining the expression of a critical protein involved in IL-12 signaling in NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine receptors on human Langerhans' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carballido JM, Faith A, Carballido-Perrig N, Blaser K: The intensity of T cell receptor engagement determines the cytokine pattern of human allergen-specific T helper cells. (springer.com)
  • Publications] S.Itoh,H.Hayashi,N.Watanabe,Y.Kobayashi,T.Takii,K.Onozaki: 'Interleukin 1(IL-1)production is not essential for acquired resistance of human melanoma cells A375 to anti-proliferative effect of IL-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mizutani H, Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase . (proteopedia.org)
  • 5. The antibody or antigen-binding fragment of claim 1, wherein said antibody or antigen-binding fragment is selected from the group consisting of a monoclonal antibody, a human antibody, a humanized antibody, a chimeric antibody, and an antigen-binding fragment of any of the foregoing. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Acting via its sole receptor CX3CR1, CX3CL1 participates in many processes in human placental tissue, including inflammation and angiogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Specific roles of the cytokine network in the human placenta include local modulation of the balance between pro and anti-inflammatory factors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • biological
  • IL-1ra is an acute-phase reactant, and levels in a number of biological systems vary in parallel with IL-1. (ahajournals.org)