• MAPK
  • p38 MAP Kinase (MAPK), also called RK or CSBP (Cytokinin Specific Binding Protein), is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Hog1p MAP kinase, which participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Two of the pyrrole carboxamides, PSI2106 and MDF2085, were especially notable in vitro inhibitors of recombinant human MKP-1 enzyme activity with IC 50 values of 8.0 ± 0.9 and 8.3 ± 0.8 μM, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • We have profiled the biochemical specificity of many of the kinase inhibitors across 442 purified recombinant kinases using the KINOMEscan method (outsourced to DiscoveRx ). (harvard.edu)
  • gene
  • A better understanding of the signal transduction systems and gene regulation by transcription factors involved in cytokine production has opened the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic compounds useful in treating patients with RA. (springer.com)
  • A mutation in this gene has been associated with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) - a primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E. Tyrosine kinase 2 has been shown to interact with FYN, PTPN6, IFNAR1, Ku80 and GNB2L1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (p59-FYN, Slk, Syn, MGC45350, Gene ID 2534) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FYN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), also known as TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) and TNF superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), is protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF15 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene of cIAP1 resides on chromosome 11 and its protein has a quaternary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array os stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines regulating cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gene is expressed as either 46 kDa or 55 kDa protein kinases, depending upon how the 3' coding region of the corresponding mRNA is processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the bait and prey proteins interact (i.e., bind), then the AD and BD of the transcription factor are indirectly connected, bringing the AD in proximity to the transcription start site and transcription of reporter gene(s) can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the two proteins do not interact, there is no transcription of the reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAJC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains multiple tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs as well as the highly conserved J domain found in DNAJ chaperone family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAK2
  • The mammalian JAK family has four members: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, Tofacitinib was thought to be a selective JAK3 inhibitor but it later it was shown that it is also a potent inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different inhibitors have been designed to target different kinases: inhibition of BCR/ABl constitutes the basis of the functioning of drugs like imatinib inhibition of FLT3 is carried out by drugs like lestaurtinib inhibition of JAK2 is carried out by the drug CYT387, which was successful in preclinical trials and is currently undergoing clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • interferons
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, astrocytes undergo morphological changes, extend their processes, and increase synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly, many neuro-developmental inhibitor molecules are secreted by the cells within the scar that prevent complete physical and functional recovery of the central nervous system after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approved by FDA on 24 July 2015 Trap Fusion Proteins: Regeneron's novel and patented Trap technology creates high-affinity product candidates for many types of signaling molecules, including growth factors and cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Activated p38 MAP kinase has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF2, Mac and MEF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia rapidly activate near the injury and secrete several cytokines, bioactive lipids, coagulation factors, reactive oxygen intermediates, and neurotrophic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GPCR can then activate an associated G protein by exchanging the GDP bound to the G protein for a GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • also referred to as suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCSSTAT-induced STAT inhibitor [SSI and cytokine-inducible SH2 protein (CIS)3 (or SOCS3/SSI3), which play an essential role in the negative regulation of cytokine signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in its DNA sequence transform it into an oncogene that leads to the formation of a different protein with implications for normal cell regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyk2
  • Signalling through IL-4/IL-13 complexes is thought to occur through IL-4Rα-chain, which is responsible for activation of JAK-1 and Tyk2 kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of a Tyk2 inhibitor appears to be a rational approach in the drug discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylate
  • c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation by regulating the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function of immune cells, as well as cells from other organ systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAK3 is crucial in transmitting signals from cytokines that are responsible for either T-cell proliferation, differentiation, or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • JNK1 is involved in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, cell differentiation and proliferation, inflammatory conditions and cytokine production mediated by AP-1 (activation protein 1) such as RANTES, IL-8 and GM-CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Dinaciclib promotes apoptosis and abrogates microenvironmental cytokine protection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cIAP1 (also named BIRC2) is the abbreviation for a human protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cIAP1 is an inhibitior of apoptosis protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that when the protein is exposed to palmitate the concentration of cIAP1 decreases and, as a result, the apoptosis is no longer inhibited resulting in the death of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT
  • the phosphorylated STAT5 finally goes on to form either homodimers, STAT5-STAT5, or heterodimers, STAT5-STATX, with other STAT proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • STATs are also negatively regulated by protein inhibitors of activated STAT (PIAS), which act in the nucleus through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • Overactivation of selective kinases or aberrant function of downstream transcription factors could help convert a normal immune response to a chronic disease state. (springer.com)
  • isoforms
  • LRRC1: 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. (mybiosource.com)
  • LRRC36: 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. (mybiosource.com)
  • citation needed] The c-Jun N-terminal kinases consist of ten isoforms derived from three genes: JNK1 (four isoforms), JNK2 (four isoforms) and JNK3 (two isoforms). (wikipedia.org)
  • c-Jun N-terminal kinase isoforms have the following tissue distribution: JNK1 and JNK2 are found in all cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • cIAP1 is a multi-functional protein which can be found in the cytoplasm of cells and in the nucleus of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The aims of this study are to investigate the antitumor function of PKC inhibitors against malignant glial tumors prior to clinical application, and further to examine the effects of PKC inhibitors in combination with cytokines such as TNF and IFN,and analyze the underlying molecular biological mechanisms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The lack of readily available selective MKP-1 inhibitors has severely limited interrogation of its biological role and was one rationale for using a recently described tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamide library in our screening efforts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • JAK3
  • It is not certain that whether JAK3 is sufficient to suppress the cytokine signaling as it can also be caused by stimulation of JAK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been difficult to develop sufficiently selective JAK3 inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAK3 inhibitors target the catalytic ATP-binding site of JAK3 and have there been various moieties utilised to get a stronger affinity and selectivity to the ATP-binding pockets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another ring system that has been utilised in JAK3 inhibitor derivatives is 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine, as it mimics the pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • Since then, the same principle has been adapted to describe many alternative methods, including some that detect protein-DNA interactions or DNA-DNA interactions, as well as methods that use different host organisms such as Escherichia coli or mammalian cells instead of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Pioneered by Stanley Fields and Ok-Kyu Song in 1989, the technique was originally designed to detect protein-protein interactions using the Gal4 transcriptional activator of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though STAT5A and STAT5B are encoded by separate genes, the proteins are 90% identical at the amino acid level. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5 proteins are involved in cytosolic signalling and in mediating the expression of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but nearly 800 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Strong responses and modulatory influences can be demonstrated, adding to the emerging view that microglial behavior is highly dependent on the (cytokine) environment and that reactions to a challenge may vary with the stimulation context. (jove.com)