• pathways
  • Binding of growth factors to their respective receptors results in the activation of individual and combined pathways resulting in pleiotropic effects on cellular biochemistry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite a wide array of distinct trophic factors and receptors that govern the survival of specific cells, many of these receptors use common intracellular signaling molecules and pathways to mediate their signals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These pathways have been shown to mediate survival signals in several cell types and model organisms and in response to a diverse array of growth factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This review will present an overview of our current understanding of programmed cell death, also referred to as apoptosis, focusing on growth factor signaling pathways in the context of cell survival and the role of these pathways in carcinogenesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell both by extrinsic (death ligand) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be split into two forms of autophagy: macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA).macroautophagy is involved with nutrient recycling of macromolecules under conditions of starvation, certain apoptotic pathways, and if absent, leads to the formation of ubiquinated inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of transcription factor binding sites upstream of human genes regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Induction of apoptosis by protease inhibitor also was detected in U937 and TF-1 leukemia cell lines and cells obtained from acute myelogenous leukemia patients but not in normal human blood monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • PUMA levels are downregulated through the activation of caspase-3 and a protease inhibited by the serpase inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, in response to signals such as the cytokine TGFβ, the death effector TRAIL or chemical drugs such as anisomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • In 1993, graduate students Shai Shaham and Junying Yuan working in Horvitz's laboratory identified interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme as the mammalian homolog of the CED-3 enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian transcription factor LSF is a target of ERK signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Likewise, differentiated THP-1 cells were refractory to Z-LLL-CHO-induced cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and Bcl-2 cleavage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oligomeric Apaf-1 mediates the cytochrome c-dependent autocatalytic activation of pro-caspase-9 (Apaf-3), leading to the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. (uniprot.org)
  • In fact, perturbations in cell metabolism, growth factor availability, and genotoxic agents, which result in the loss of mitochondrial function, can induce cell death even in the absence of caspase activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Apaf-1 and procaspase-9, which are implicated in caspase activation after treatment of cells with various anticancer drugs, were detectable in all of the cell lines, with levels of Apaf-1 ranging from ∼1 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 6 molecules per cell and procaspase-9 from ∼5 × 10 3 to ∼1.6 × 10 5 molecules per cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In December of the same year, a further article was released in The Journal of Biological Chemistry stating that Apaf-1 is the regulator of apoptosis, through activation of procaspase-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • either by directly controlling the activation of caspases, or by disrupting the channels that allow proapoptotic factors from leaving the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • death receptor
  • The results of this study show that on death induction by chemotherapeutic drugs, staurosporine and triggering of the death receptor CD95, cytochrome c not only translocates into the cytosol, but furthermore can be abundantly detected in the extracellular medium. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Therefore, cell death can be categorized based on the method of initiation: 1) that which is initiated from cell surface death receptor engagement or 2) death arising from mitochondrial dysfunction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • proapoptotic
  • The clinical phenotype of CEDS patients represented a paradox since caspase-8 was considered to be chiefly a proapoptotic protease, that was mainly involved in signal transduction from Tumor necrosis factor receptor family death receptors such as Fas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical studies have shown that PUMA interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w, and A1, inhibiting their interaction with the proapoptotic molecules, Bax and Bak. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The dipole moment of cytochrome c is a result from a cluster of negatively charged amino acid side chains at the "back" of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inhibiting caspase 1, also known as interleukin 1β converting enzyme (ICE), crmA prevents cytokines interleukin 1β from being formed, preventing an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In addition the redox potential of +0.25 volts is the same in all cytochrome c molecules studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are essentially traditional NSAIDs which can either have nitric oxide- (NO-) donating moieties, hydrogen sulphide- (H 2 S-) donating moieties, or phosphate moieties covalently attached to the -COOH site via aromatic or aliphatic spacer molecules, as shown in Figure 1 . (hindawi.com)
  • Cellular
  • Caspases lead to the proteolysis of a number of cellular substrates, a process which finally results in the apoptotic collapse of the cell. (rupress.org)
  • receptors
  • Interestingly, caspase-8, whose function appeared to be restricted to death receptors, was also activated by these drugs under normal conditions, but not after ATP depletion. (rupress.org)
  • Further work revealed that caspase-8 was essential for the induction of the transcription factor "nuclear factor κB" (NF-κB) after stimulation through antigen receptors, Fc receptors, or Toll-like receptor 4 in T, B, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive proenzymes
  • These proteases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes which, upon proteolytic cleavage at aspartate residues, form an active complex composed of two heterodimeric subunits. (rupress.org)
  • Biological
  • In addition to its importance as a biological phenomenon, defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Despite variations in the number of bound heme groups and variations in sequence, the dipole moment of vertebrate cytochromes c is remarkably conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex involved caspase-9 and Bcl-XL which each bound a specific Apaf-1 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane bound)1. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reactive center loop of the protease is bound to the central beta loop of the serpin, trapping the protease in a state where it is no longer able to perform its catalytic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • Bryostatin 1-induced differentiation of THP-1 cells was associated with growth arrest, acquisition of adherent capacity, and expression of membrane markers characteristic of blood monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • signals
  • PUMA is involved in p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis induced by a variety of signals, and is regulated by transcription factors, not by post-translational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • p53 is activated by survival signals such as glucose deprivation and increases expression levels of PUMA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also becoming clear that mitosis and apoptosis are toggled or linked in some way and that the balance achieved depends on signals received from appropriate growth or survival factors. (wikipedia.org)