• selectivity
  • Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies for diaryl heterocyclic compounds have indicated that a cis-stilbene moiety and changes in the para-position of one of the aryl rings play an important role in COX-2 selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • analgesic
  • Pre-treatment with naltrexone diminished the analgesic effects of a COX-2 inhibitor, and its antinociception was abolished in rats made tolerant to the analgesic effects of morphine [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hemicrania was mentioned in 1881 in The Therapeutic Gazette Vol. 2, by G.S.Davis, and the incident has been cited in King's American Dispensatory (1898 and later editions) in the description of the strong analgesic Jamaican Dogwood, a relatively low dose of which reportedly produced convulsions and prolonged respiratory depression over six hours in an elderly woman with this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • COX-2 inhibitors are used in the treatment of arthritis and acute gout. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The δ and κ opioid receptors are involved in the activity of COX-2 inhibitor on the facilitated state as well as acute pain at the spinal level, whereas the µ opioid receptor is related only to facilitated pain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, µ, δ and κ opioid receptor antagonists were intrathecally administered to investigate the ability of opioid receptor subtype antagonists to reverse the antinociception induced by COX-2 inhibitor in the formalin test which shows an early phase of acute nociceptive response followed by a late phase response being related to more complex inflammatory reactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although some studies have reported mixed results with regard to the cardiovascular risk, 2-4 several recently published randomized trials and population-based studies have established an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and thromboembolic events related to the use of most COX-2 inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • potent
  • The researchers were able to achieve similar heart-stopping results in rat cardiac cells, whereas aspirin, another potent COX-2 inhibitor, had no effect, confirming that another mechanism is at work. (newsinferno.com)
  • novel
  • In 1991, during the investigation of the expression of early-response genes in fibroblasts transformed with Rous sarcoma virus, a novel mRNA transcript that was similar, but not identical, to the seminal COX enzyme was identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another group discovered a novel cDNA species encoding a protein with similar structure to COX-1 while studying phorbol-ester-induced genes in Swiss 3T3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same laboratory showed that this gene truly expressed a novel COX enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bextra
  • LOS ANGELES (CBS.MW) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has called for evaluation of Cox-2 inhibitors such as Celebrex and Bextra, the agency said Thursday. (marketwatch.com)
  • On September 2, 2009, the United States Department of Justice fined Pfizer $2.3 billion after one of its subsidiaries, Pharmacia & UpJohn Company, pleaded guilty to marketing four drugs including Bextra "with the intent to defraud or mislead. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • After several COX-2 inhibiting drugs were approved for marketing, data from clinical trials revealed that COX-2 inhibitors caused a significant increase in heart attacks and strokes, with some drugs in the class having worse risks than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient race is a significant predictor of COX-2 prescriptions in the Medicaid population, even after adjusting for other demographic and clinical variables. (wiley.com)
  • antibiotics
  • Do some of the newer COX-2 inhibitors cross-react with sulfonamide antibiotics? (scielo.org.za)
  • The immunologic determinant of type I, immediate hypersensitivity responses to sulfonamide antibiotics is the N1 heterocyclic ring ( Figure 2 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • Often blood transfusions are not recommended unless the hemoglobin is less than 70 or 80 g/L. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors, octreotide, and antibiotics may be considered in certain cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • They also stress it is too early to speculate on human effects, although their results suggest Drosophilaâ€"one of the most valuable of organisms in biological research and has been used as a model research organism for almost a centuryâ€"are a valuable tool to investigate other COX-2 drugs. (newsinferno.com)
  • Inc. (Novartis) to remove (recall) all lumiracoxib from local drug stores in 2 weeks due to the harmful effects of the drug (potential serious liver-related side effects, hepatotoxicity or malfunction of the lungs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tramadol is structurally closer to venlafaxine than to codeine and delivers analgesia by not only delivering "opioid-like" effects (through mild agonism of the mu receptor) but also by acting as a weak but fast-acting serotonin releasing agent and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • increased COX-2 protein expression was observed in the kidney cortex and microvessels of the Obese Zucker rats at 10-12 and 20-21 weeks of age. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, without affecting COX-1 expression. (herbs.org)
  • disorders
  • Mark Thompson, "Hemicrania Continua" "The International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition (ICHD-2)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • analogue
  • Reaction of the imine with TosMIC in the presence of potassium carbonate leads to what may be viewed as 2+3 cycloaddition of the nitrogen analogue of a ketene to form the imidazole ring. (wikipedia.org)