• tumor
  • In contrast, an increased expression of COX-1 was detected in 45% of breast carcinomas and was associated with smaller tumor size and negative nodal status. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Because inflammatory mechanisms influence vitreal neovascularization and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 promotes tumor angiogenesis, we investigated the role of COX-2 in ischemic proliferative retinopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • COX-2 expression is strongly correlated with increased tumor microvasculature density and plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell metastasis and invasion. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor cyclooxygenase 2-dependent suppression of dendritic cell function. (nih.gov)
  • To define the pathways limiting DC function in the tumor microenvironment, we assessed the impact of tumor cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression on DC activities. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow-derived DCs were cultured in either tumor supernatant (TSN) or TSN from COX-2-inhibited tumors. (nih.gov)
  • NSAIDS
  • Versuche mit COX Inhibitoren (NSAIDs) zeigten im Tiermodell eine deutliche Reduktion von Inzidenz und Größe der Tumoren in einer dosisabhängigen Weise. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Soon after the discovery of the mechanism of action of NSAIDs, strong indications emerged for alternative forms of COX, but little supporting evidence was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the confirmation of COX-2 existence, the Dupont company had developed a compound, DuP-697, that was potent in many anti-inflammatory assays but did not have the ulcerogenic effects of NSAIDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enormous effort was spent on the development of NSAIDs between the 1960s and 1980 so there were numerous pharmacophores to test when COX-2 was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that inhibiting COX-2 leads to the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects, whereas those NSAIDs also inhibiting COX-1, particularly aspirin, may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers in large doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSAID
  • If a COX-2 inhibitor is taken, a traditional NSAID (prescription or over-the-counter) should not be taken at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • arachidonic acid
  • The exact biosynthesis of NaGly is not completely understood, but there are two proposed pathways found in vitro for its biosynthesis: 1) enzymatically regulated conjugation of arachidonic acid and glycine and 2) the oxidative metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectivity
  • Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies for diaryl heterocyclic compounds have indicated that a cis-stilbene moiety and changes in the para-position of one of the aryl rings play an important role in COX-2 selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • analgesic
  • Hemicrania was mentioned in 1881 in The Therapeutic Gazette Vol. 2, by G.S.Davis, and the incident has been cited in King's American Dispensatory (1898 and later editions) in the description of the strong analgesic Jamaican Dogwood, a relatively low dose of which reportedly produced convulsions and prolonged respiratory depression over six hours in an elderly woman with this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The tobacco smoke had also been related to rise in production of two proteins that start an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function that can lead to the production of the chemical Cox 2. (medindia.net)
  • Whereas TSN DCs showed a significant reduction in cell surface expression of CD11c, DEC-205, MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, CD80, and CD86 as well as a reduction in the transporter-associated proteins, transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2, the changes in phenotype and function were not evident when DCs were cultured in supernatant from COX-2-inhibited tumors. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • COS-1 cells transfected with the mutant gene were unable to express the 74kDa glycoform and were found to accumulate more COX-2 protein and have five times greater COX-2 activity than cells expressing both glycoforms. (uniprot.org)
  • Cox 2 is a cellular protein that had been related to onset and development of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Three of the SNPs in the promoter region of COX-2 gene create at least three putative transcription factor binding sites and eliminate CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) and NF-kappa B binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • Another group discovered a novel cDNA species encoding a protein with similar structure to COX-1 while studying phorbol-ester-induced genes in Swiss 3T3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • This invention is in the field of antiinflammatory pharmaceutical agents and specifically relates to compounds, compositions and methods for treating disorders mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 or 5-lipoxygenase, such as inflammation. (google.com)
  • Mark Thompson, "Hemicrania Continua" "The International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition (ICHD-2)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Furthermore, cEGF-like domains can be divided in two subtypes (1 and 2) whereas all hEGF-like domains belong to one subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is also an immediate-early gene product of inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • COX-2 gene promoter haplotypes and prostate cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known about the role that sequence variation of the COX-2 gene contributes to prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we searched for polymorphisms in the promoter region of the COX-2 gene using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Both nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites are recognized as paracrine factors of renal microvascular function. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 Because the TGF mechanism contributes to afferent arteriolar autoregulation, 4 5 6 nNOS also exerts a counteracting modulatory influence on the afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses to changes in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 In addition, we recently demonstrated that renal vasodilator responses to NO are partially mediated by the production of vasodilatory metabolites, which is caused by the increased activity of COX-2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, COX-2 turnover appears to depend upon glycosylation of the 72kDa glycoform. (uniprot.org)
  • Thus, the contribution of COX-derived metabolites to overall autoregulatory responsiveness remains controversial. (ahajournals.org)
  • compound
  • According to an article in the journal cancer Research, tobacco smoke have been linked with the rising levels of the chemical compound called Cox 2. (medindia.net)
  • Bextra
  • On September 2, 2009, the United States Department of Justice fined Pfizer $2.3 billion after one of its subsidiaries, Pharmacia & UpJohn Company, pleaded guilty to marketing four drugs including Bextra "with the intent to defraud or mislead. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Nimesulide, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, delays the progression of precancerous pancreatic lesions in mice, according to researchers at David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. (innovations-report.com)
  • To study the effects of COX-2 on PanIN progression, Dr. Eibl and colleagues focused on the KrasG12D mouse, an animal model that mimics the early stages of pancreatic cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • vitro
  • Methods and Results- We describe here that COX-2 is induced in retinal astrocytes in human diabetic retinopathy, in the murine and rat model of ischemic proliferative retinopathy in vivo, and in hypoxic astrocytes in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists of the study had found out higher levels of Cox 2 in the oral mucosal cells of the mouth lining of the smokers than in people who are not smokers. (medindia.net)
  • mainly
  • It treats pain mainly by blocking COX-2 mostly in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The data of this study show a prognostic role of COX-2 expression. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Conclusion- These findings point to an important role for COX-2 in ischemic proliferative retinopathy, as in diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 We hereby investigated the role of COX-2 in a nontumoral condition, namely ischemic proliferative retinopathy, using human retinal tissue and experimental proliferative ischemic retinopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies of breast, colon, and pancreatic cancers have led researchers to believe COX-2 plays a key role in the development and growth of tumors. (innovations-report.com)
  • rats
  • Ischemic proliferative retinopathy was also reproduced in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 7 cycles of hyperoxia (80% O 2 , 20.5 hours) and hypoxia (10% O 2 , 0.5 hours) with a gradual return to 80% O 2 over 3 hours, from P1 to P7. (ahajournals.org)
  • activity
  • To test this hypothesis, afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses to increases in RPP were assessed under conditions of normal and inhibited COX-2 activity with the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique combined with videomicroscopy. (ahajournals.org)
  • expression
  • Eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression wurde in 36% der untersuchten Mammakarzinome festgestellt. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Eine erhöhte COX-1 Expression wurde in 45% der untersuchten Tumoren gefunden und korrelierte signifikant mit kleineren und nicht in regionäre Lymphknoten metastasierten Karzinomen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In der univariaten Überlebensanalyse stellte sich eine positive COX-2 Expression im Gegensatz zur COX-1 sowohl im rezidivfreien Überleben als auch im Gesamtüberleben als prognostisch relevant heraus. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In der multivariaten Analyse erreichte eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression eine grenzwertige statistische Signifikanz als unabhängiger Parameter innerhalb des rezidivfreien Überlebens. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Eine erhöhte COX-1 Expression erreichte keinen statistisch signifikanten Einfluß auf die Prognose. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Aufgrund dieser Ergebnisse ist somit eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression im Mammakarzinom mit prognostisch ungünstigen Faktoren assoziiert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The expression of COX-1 and -2 was determined by immunohistochemistry retrospectivly in a cohort of 221 women. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In univariate survival analysis a significant association between an increased expression of COX-2 and a decreased disease-free survival as well as decreased overall survival was found. (hu-berlin.de)
  • An elevated expression of COX-1 had no significant influence on patient prognosis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • increases
  • Tobacco smoke increases the levels of Cox 2. (medindia.net)
  • Abstract -This study was designed to examine the contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses to increases in perfusion pressure and its relationship with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). (ahajournals.org)
  • aspirin
  • As an example of this "transcellular metabolic pathway", aspirin triggered resolvin Ds (AT-RvDs) re made by the initial conversion of DHA by aspirin-acetylated COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells to 17(R)-hydroxy-DHA which is then transferred to nearby neutrophils which then use ALOX5 to oxygenate the 17(R)-hydroxyl-DHA to AT-resolvin Ds. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • Reaction of the imine with TosMIC in the presence of potassium carbonate leads to what may be viewed as 2+3 cycloaddition of the nitrogen analogue of a ketene to form the imidazole ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • Human COX-2 standard, frozen, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA no-wash immunoassays. (perkinelmer.com)
  • This standard is already provided in the AlphaLISA Human COX-2 Detection Kit, but can be ordered separately. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The human COX-2 analyte (provided on dry ice) is unstable and does not tolerate freeze-thawing. (perkinelmer.com)
  • influence
  • These data suggest that variation of the COX-2 promoter may influence the risk and development of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 16 It is, therefore, possible that metabolites derived from COX-2, localized to the macula densa segment, mediate the modulating influence of nNOS-derived NO on pressure-mediated afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • suppression
  • In particular, peripherally administered NAGly inhibited phase 2 pain behavior, suggesting either a direct suppression of nociceptive afferents on the nerve or an indirect modulation of the afferents' interstitial environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • These results indicate that COX-2-derived metabolites contribute to the nNOS modulation of pressure-mediated afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • study
  • While inflammation has been shown to be a factor in many forms of cancer, the researchers say this is the first study to demonstrate the effect of an anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor on the development of pancreatic cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the present study, we hypothesized that COX-2 modulates afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses to changes in RPP by interacting with nNOS-derived NO around the macula densa cells. (ahajournals.org)