• Leukemia
  • The Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukemia cancer cells (particularly chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is associated with the development of cutaneous lymphoma, and the feline sarcoma virus has, under experimental conditions, produced malignant melanoma in cats. (maxshouse.com)
  • Drs. Peter Nowell and David Hungerford, two Philadelphia researchers, were experimenting with cells from various types of leukemia when one noticed a smaller-than-normal chromosome number 22 on the cancer cells of two individuals with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). (oncolink.org)
  • The bcr-abl gene is constitutively active (meaning it does not require activation by other proteins), and sends signals to activate proteins and enzymes which speed up cellular division and can lead to the formation of abnormal white blood cells that proliferate to the point that they interfere with normal blood cell production, leading to leukemia. (oncolink.org)
  • In May of 2001, imatinib was approved by the FDA for the initial therapy for CML and later, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)- positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), by targeting the bcr-ablprotein, preventing further development of leukemia cells. (oncolink.org)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood, where abnormally high numbers of ineffective white blood cells known as "blast cells" accumulate in the circulation and limit normal blood cell production. (oncolink.org)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia, systemic mastocytosis, etc.) (see causes of eosinophilia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • Blau syndrome Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome Familial cold urticaria (familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome) Familial Mediterranean fever Hyper-IgD syndrome Majeed syndrome Muckle-Wells syndrome TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (familial Hibernian fever, TRAPS, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome) Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course and present with vesicles and bullae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In every type of mastocytosis symptoms can be acute or chronic. (mastocytosis.eu)
  • benign
  • Since the tumor in domestic animals is almost always benign, the preferred nomenclature is basal cell tumor. (maxshouse.com)
  • histamine
  • Both are granulated cells that contain histamine and heparin, an anticoagulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells produce and store substances (i.e. histamine), which can be released and may result in symptoms. (mastocytosis.eu)
  • Mast cells contain packets (or granules) of chemicals including histamine which can be released outside the mast cell. (mastocytosis.eu)
  • People affected by mastocytosis are susceptible to a variety of symptoms including itching, hives, and anaphylactic shock, caused by the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory substances from mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By releasing chemical "alarms" such as histamine , mast cells attract other key players of the immune defense system to areas of the body where they are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the typical itching felt around a healing scab may be caused by histamine released by mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cell mediators include preformed mediators such as histamine and proteases such as tryptase, chymase and carboxypeptidase and newly formed lipid products of membrane arachidonic acid such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and platelet activating factor. (worldallergy.org)
  • symptoms
  • Symptoms are often caused by degranulation or the release of substances (granules) stored in the mast cells. (mastocytosis.eu)
  • I. Cutaneous Mastocytosis (CM) , which is an exclusively dermatological disease , though mediator symptoms may be systemic. (mastocytosis.eu)
  • When mast cells undergo degranulation , the substances that are released can cause a number of symptoms which can vary over time and can range in intensity from mild to severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mast cells play a role in allergic reactions, the symptoms of mastocytosis often are similar to the symptoms of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased numbers of blood cells may not cause any symptoms, but a number of medical problems or symptoms may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] When too many mast cells exist in a person's body and undergo degranulation, the additional chemicals can cause a number of symptoms which can vary over time and can range in intensity from mild to severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibiting the tyrosine kinase receptor with imatinib (see below) may reduce the symptoms of mastocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, most patients also have symptoms related to mast cell mediator release. (worldallergy.org)
  • Patients with cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis present with symptoms related to the tissue response to the release of mediators and to the local mast cell burden (5). (worldallergy.org)
  • Efforts to link particular mast cell mediators to symptoms depend on the known actions of the mediator and the efficacy of the mediator-targeted medications. (worldallergy.org)
  • A recent cross sectional comprehensive survey of over 400 patients with Mastocytosis done under The Mastocytosis Society based in the USA indicated that the symptoms most commonly associated with the disease included anxiety, flushing, itching, fatigue, brain fog, stomach pain, diarrhea, headaches, joint pain, lightheadedness and syncope (8). (worldallergy.org)
  • These symptoms were not correlated with mast cell mediator levels and cannot be attributed to a single mediator but were critical in decreasing the quality of life of these patients. (worldallergy.org)
  • mediator
  • Anaphylaxis due to acute mast cell mediator release can be triggered by multiple factors and should be promptly address due to the potential for massive cardiovascular collapse and death. (worldallergy.org)
  • differentiation
  • The first in vitro differentiation and growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells has been carried out using conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, it was discovered that T cell-derived interleukin 3 was the component present in the conditioned media that was required for mast cell differentiation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fusion genes encode fusion proteins that continuously stimulate cell growth, proliferation, prolonged survival, and/or differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules are markers on the cell surface, as recognized by specific sets of antibodies, used to identify the cell type, stage of differentiation and activity of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling through CD117 plays a role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • degranulation
  • When activated, a mast cell can either selectively release (piecemeal degranulation) or rapidly release (anaphylactic degranulation) "mediators", or compounds that induce inflammation, from storage granules into the local microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the more prevalent explanations is that it is the taste of epinephrine , which your body releases as an initial defense against anaphylaxis or mast cell degranulation. (mastattack.org)
  • granules
  • Mast cells have within them small sacs, or granules, surrounded by membranes. (tmsforacure.org)
  • Clinical findings in all disease types depend on the changes caused by release of active editors in granules of the mast cells. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Mast cells were first described by Paul Ehrlich in his 1878 doctoral thesis on the basis of their unique staining characteristics and large granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granules also led him to the incorrect belief that they existed to nourish the surrounding tissue, so he named them Mastzellen (from German Mast, meaning 'fattening', as of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • These similarities have led many to speculate that mast cells are basophils that have "homed in" on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells collect in various tissues and can affect organs where mast cells do not normally inhabit such as the liver , spleen and lymph nodes , and organs which have normal populations but where numbers are increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • Although mast cells were once thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD117 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells as well as other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cells are normally present in the blood at low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mobilization is used clinically as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plerixafor (an antagonist of CXCR4-SDF1) in combination with G-CSF, is also being used for mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The most common activating mutation in codon 816 located in exon 17 of KIT is a valine substitution for aspartate (D816V) and is found in over 90% of patients with systemic mastocyosis and in the skin biopsies of over 30% children with cutaneous mastocytosis (2). (worldallergy.org)
  • The clone of eosinophils bear a mutation in any one of several genes that code for proteins that regulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)