• parasites
  • The ova and parasite (O&P) exam is used to detect the presence of parasites in a stool sample and help diagnose an infection of the digestive system (gastrointestinal, GI tract). (labcorp.com)
  • These tests detect protein structures on the parasites and can identify an infection, even if no actual parasites or ova are seen in the stool. (labcorp.com)
  • This GI profile is a multiplexed nucleic acid test intended for the simultaneous qualitative detection and identification of nucleic acids from multiple bacteria, viruses and parasites directly from stool samples in Cary-Blair transport media obtained from individuals with signs and/or symptoms of gastrointestinal infection. (labcorp.com)
  • Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • its S. typhimurium infection is caused by consumption of eggs or poultry that are not adequately cooked or by other interactive human-animal pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) which can cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome Other common bacterial foodborne pathogens are: Bacillus cereus Escherichia coli, other virulence properties, such as enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC or EAgEC) Listeria monocytogenes Shigella spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of animal models: Experimental infection in animals has been used as a criterion to demonstrate a disease-causing ability, but for some pathogens (such as Vibrio cholerae, which cause disease only in humans) animal models do not exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Variable pathogenicity: Infection with pathogens can produce varying responses in hosts, complicating the process of showing a relationship between infection and the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • While gastroenteritis and other such "mild illness" are rarely debilitating to healthy adults for more than a few hours to a few days, enteric pathogens can cause severe illness, even death, for young children, the elderly, or those with compromised immune systems. (gfredlee.com)
  • organisms
  • These micro-organisms are found worldwide and are typically transmitted from person to person via the fecal-oral route - an infected person who does not practice proper hand or body hygiene passes on the infection to another person when handling food and water. (iamat.org)
  • disease
  • the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 30% to 70% of those who travel outside of the U.S. will get a GI infection. (labcorp.com)
  • Corynebacterium ulcerans Coxiella burnetii or Q fever Plesiomonas shigelloides In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some foodborne illnesses are caused by enterotoxins (exotoxins targeting the intestines). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Pre-existing theories of disease: Before a pathogen is well-recognized, scientists may attribute the symptoms of infection to other causes, such as toxicological, psychological, or genetic causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any known or suspected disease outbreak, including any outbreak associated with health care, regardless of whether the disease, infection, microorganism, or condition is specified below. (oregon.gov)
  • Cat scratch disease (infection caused by Bartonella spp. (mn.us)
  • hygiene
  • Good hygiene practices before, during, and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • foodborne
  • Population-based active surveillance for Cyclospora infection--United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1997-2009. (medscape.com)
  • Foodborne illness usually arises from improper handling, preparation, or food storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a consensus in the public health community that regular hand-washing is one of the most effective defenses against the spread of foodborne illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action of monitoring food to ensure that it will not cause foodborne illness is known as food safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, foodborne illness can be caused by pesticides or medicines in food and natural toxic substances such as poisonous mushrooms or reef fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • C. cayentanensis causes gastroenteritis, with the extent of the illness varying based on age, condition of the host, and size of the infectious dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • vegetables
  • Risk of infection is secondary to the consumption of contaminated fruits, vegetables, water, or other foodstuffs (see Deterrence/Prevention for strategies that decrease the risk of acquiring this infection). (medscape.com)
  • cause
  • However, there are cases where it is useful to perform testing that identifies the cause of the GI infection - to guide its treatment, eliminate its source, and limit its spread. (labcorp.com)
  • Transmission
  • Unlike Plasmodium, which transmits via a mosquito vector, Cryptosporidium does not use an insect vector, and is capable of completing its lifecycle within a single host, resulting in cyst stages that are excreted in feces or through coughing fomites and are capable of transmission to a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. (asmscience.org)
  • water
  • In general, the required levels of chlorine preclude the use of chlorine disinfection as a reliable method to control Cryptosporidium in drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water Research Foundation-funded research originally discovered UV's efficacy in inactivating Cryptosporidium. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the end consumer of drinking water believed to be contaminated by Cryptosporidium, the safest option is to boil all water used for drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Ultraviolet light treatment at relatively low doses will inactivate Cryptosporidium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Romark Laboratories has announced encouraging results from international Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating a controlled release version of nitazoxanide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • The timing of health care provider reports is specified to reflect the severity of the illness or condition and the potential value of rapid intervention by public health agencies. (oregon.gov)
  • presence
  • Both microscopic and conventional PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis demonstrated the presence of Cyclospora sp. (ajtmh.org)