• prevalence
  • Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies gather information about the prevalence of health-related states and conditions, but they cannot distinguish between newly occurring and long-established conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many studies look at the prevalence of "advanced periodontitis", but have differing definitions of this term. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of methodological concerns with prevalence studies, particularly 1) the ability of partial recording to reflect full-mouth conditions and 2) the use of the Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) recording system. (wikipedia.org)
  • describe
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Journal
  • Charles Kwame R. Gyamfi, Isaac Amankwaa, Frank Owusu Sekyere, and Daniel Boateng, "Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study," Journal of Environmental and Public Health , vol. 2016, Article ID 7054276, 7 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • obese
  • They found that it actually appears to be a factor linked with the presence of knee pain as well as osteoarthritis in obese study subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • ineffective
  • For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a completely ineffective treatment may appear to be providing benefits if one merely compares the condition before and after the treatment for only those who finish the study (ignoring those who were enrolled originally, but have since been excluded or dropped out). (wikipedia.org)
  • One low quality study found that zopiclone is ineffective in improving sleep quality or increasing sleep time in shift workers - more research in this area has been recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • conclusions
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • survey
  • Assessing vaccination coverage in infants, survey studies versus the Flemish immunisation register: achieving the best of both worlds," Vaccine , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 345-349, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • In a cross-sectional survey, a specific group is looked at to see if an activity, say alcohol consumption, is related to the health effect being investigated, say cirrhosis of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in modern epidemiology it may be impossible to survey the entire population of interest, so cross-sectional studies often involve secondary analysis of data collected for another purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Cross-sectional studies may involve special data collection, including questions about the past, but they often rely on data originally collected for other purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other variables that affect the relationship between the putative cause and effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies are often used as a basis for health-policy decisions, and it is important to ensure that only current, rather than obsolete, information is used for this purpose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • effect
  • In this study population the preventive effect of high dietary calcium on osteoporosis is probably very weak. (diva-portal.org)
  • time
  • Longitudinal studies differ from both in making a series of observations more than once on members of the study population over a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible study design would be to sample 100 infected subjects, randomly give them the treatment or the placebo, and see if the infection is still present after a set time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects the treatment, 50 infected subjects the placebo, and see if the infection is still present after a set time. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Intention to treat analyses are done to avoid the effects of crossover and dropout, which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects the treatment, 50 infected subjects the placebo, and stop the experiment once a set number of subjects has healed from the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • previous studies
  • however, previous studies have proposed both direct and indirect mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e. the somatization-anxiety-depression triad). (wikipedia.org)
  • observations
  • Future studies to further validate our observations are warranted in order to implement multidisciplinary clinical guidelines. (hindawi.com)
  • include
  • For instance, a single cross-sectional study may include questions about smoking behavior, occupational exposure to dusts and fumes, respiratory symptoms (cough, breathlessness), and physical examinations of physical fitness - including simple tests of lung function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • interest
  • We have read with great interest the study of Karukunchit et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence . (dovepress.com)
  • subjects
  • Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. (aappublications.org)
  • There was an apparent increase from 1% to 2% to 3% over the three study periods, which may have been due to an increase of dentate subjects in the older age groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • Studies have shown that substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The large scale KANWU study found that increasing monounsaturated fat and decreasing saturated fat intake could improve insulin sensitivity, but only when the overall fat intake of the diet was low. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis because it does not require observation of compliance status for units assigned to different treatments or incorporation of compliance into the analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • relationship
  • Such a study would throw some light on the relationship of both occupational exposures and smoking behavior to respiratory symptoms and respiratory function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • design
  • This type of design is uncommon, but has the same structure as the 'lady tasting tea' study that led to R. A. Fisher creating Fisher's Exact test. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • However, it is impossible either to establish causal relationships or to get reliable perspectives on the natural history of respiratory disease from such a study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • shown
  • From the study, it is shown that more monounsaturated fats lead to less anger and irritability. (wikipedia.org)