• prevalence
  • Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies gather information about the prevalence of health-related states and conditions, but they cannot distinguish between newly occurring and long-established conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many studies look at the prevalence of "advanced periodontitis", but have differing definitions of this term. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of methodological concerns with prevalence studies, particularly 1) the ability of partial recording to reflect full-mouth conditions and 2) the use of the Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) recording system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • This study found no association between isotretinoin use and CD, but a small excess risk of CD in patients with a diagnosis of acne. (springer.com)
  • No studies have previously looked at white matter hyperintense lesions in MR images of PD patients and their impact on dementia in PD. (uib.no)
  • In our study, DLB patients had more atrophy in parietal and occipital areas compared with PDD patients. (uib.no)
  • describe
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (encyclopedia.com)
  • ineffective
  • For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a completely ineffective treatment may appear to be providing benefits if one merely compares the condition before and after the treatment for only those who finish the study (ignoring those who were enrolled originally, but have since been excluded or dropped out). (wikipedia.org)
  • One low quality study found that zopiclone is ineffective in improving sleep quality or increasing sleep time in shift workers - more research in this area has been recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • conclusions
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • population
  • However, in modern epidemiology it may be impossible to survey the entire population of interest, so cross-sectional studies often involve secondary analysis of data collected for another purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the spectrum and pattern haemoglobinopathies in a selected population of Bangladesh. (hindawi.com)
  • A population-based study of coeliac disease, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • In this study population the preventive effect of high dietary calcium on osteoporosis is probably very weak. (diva-portal.org)
  • periodontal
  • This study assessed the effect of qat chewing on periodontal health, independent of other risk factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Several studies did show a significant association between qat chewing and periodontal destruction based on comparisons between chewer and nonchewer groups [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Epidemiology of periodontal disease is the study of patterns, causes, and effects of periodontal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Cross-sectional studies may involve special data collection, including questions about the past, but they often rely on data originally collected for other purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other variables that affect the relationship between the putative cause and effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies are often used as a basis for health-policy decisions, and it is important to ensure that only current, rather than obsolete, information is used for this purpose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • effect
  • In a cross-sectional survey, a specific group is looked at to see if an activity, say alcohol consumption, is related to the health effect being investigated, say cirrhosis of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Intention to treat analyses are done to avoid the effects of crossover and dropout, which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The first study to compare whole brain atrophy in PD versus other types of dementia was published in 2004, showing that the pattern of grey matter loss in PD and PDD was different from the changes found in AD. (uib.no)
  • The studies that have been published since, have in part confirmed these results, but also conflicting results have been found. (uib.no)
  • The large scale KANWU study found that increasing monounsaturated fat and decreasing saturated fat intake could improve insulin sensitivity, but only when the overall fat intake of the diet was low. (wikipedia.org)
  • previous studies
  • however, previous studies have proposed both direct and indirect mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e. the somatization-anxiety-depression triad). (wikipedia.org)
  • observations
  • Future studies to further validate our observations are warranted in order to implement multidisciplinary clinical guidelines. (hindawi.com)
  • include
  • For instance, a single cross-sectional study may include questions about smoking behavior, occupational exposure to dusts and fumes, respiratory symptoms (cough, breathlessness), and physical examinations of physical fitness - including simple tests of lung function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • interest
  • We have read with great interest the study of Karukunchit et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence . (dovepress.com)
  • design
  • ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis because it does not require observation of compliance status for units assigned to different treatments or incorporation of compliance into the analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of design is uncommon, but has the same structure as the 'lady tasting tea' study that led to R. A. Fisher creating Fisher's Exact test. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • Studies have shown that substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • relationship
  • Such a study would throw some light on the relationship of both occupational exposures and smoking behavior to respiratory symptoms and respiratory function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • natural
  • However, it is impossible either to establish causal relationships or to get reliable perspectives on the natural history of respiratory disease from such a study. (encyclopedia.com)