• ligand
  • The catalyst [(π-allyl)PdCl] 2 (2.1 mg, 0.006 mmol, Catalog Number 222380 ), ligand cBRIDP (7.6 mg, 0.022 mmol, Catalog Number 693383 ), KO- t -Bu (184 mg, 1.56 mmol), and amine (1.20 mmol) are sequentially added under argon into a reaction flask containing a stir bar. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chemical reactions may lead to a substitution of a group in a molecule or a ligand in a complex, to the elimination of a group of the molecule or a ligand, or to a rearrangement of a molecule or complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • aryl
  • Parallel microscale experimentation was used to develop general conditions for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of diversely functionalized primary alkyltrifluoroborates with a variety of aryl chlorides. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The conditions that were previously identified to promote the cross-coupling of secondary alkyltrifluoroborates with aryl chlorides were not optimal for primary alkyltrifluoroborates. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The scope of the BrettPhos precatalyst for the cross-coupling of ortho-substituted aryl iodides with amides is studied using substrates with a variety of functional groups. (mit.edu)
  • A final C-N bond formation study focuses on the cross-coupling of aryl halides with amidine salts. (mit.edu)
  • Potential medicinal applications of the developed cross-coupling of amidine salts with aryl halides methodology are described. (mit.edu)
  • bonds
  • The Negishi cross-coupling of organozinc reagents is a valuable tool for the formation of C-C bonds in the presence of functional groups. (rsc.org)
  • This tutorial review presents the more recent advances in Ni-catalysed Negishi cross-couplings for the formation of different kinds of C-C bonds and discusses their proposed reaction mechanisms. (rsc.org)
  • Less than half of the general population experience a reaction with the saturated urushiol alone, but over 90% do so with urushiol that contains at least two degrees of unsaturation (double bonds). (wikipedia.org)
  • For electron transfer reactions without making or breaking bonds Marcus theory takes the place of Eyring's transition state theory which has been derived for reactions with structural changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serums
  • Edward Francis (Symptoms, Diagnosis and Pathology of Tularemia, The Journal , Oct. 20, 1928, p. 1155) has called attention to reactions with Brucella abortus in serums from patients with tularemia. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Electron
  • It has been shown for the first time that relatively electron deficient triazolium pre- catalysts promote (at low loadings in the presence of base) highly chemoselective crossed acyloin condensation reactions between aldehydes and α-ketoesters to afford densely functionalized products incorporating a quaternary stereocentre of considerable synthetic potential. (rsc.org)
  • For this cross-coupling, a methodology has been developed that can be applied to various electron-rich, electron-poor, and electron-neutral substrates. (mit.edu)
  • A valine-derived, electron-deficient triazolium salt catalyzes a high yielding, highly chemo- and enantioselective cross-benzoin reaction between aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Electron equivalent Electrochemical reaction mechanism Greenwood, N. N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions - the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most startling result of Marcus' theory was the "inverted region": whereas the reaction rates usually become higher with increasing exergonicity of the reaction, electron transfer should, according to Marcus theory, become slower in the very negative Δ {\displaystyle \Delta } G0 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this type of electron-transfer reactions R.A. Marcus has developed his theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total reaction may be diffusion controlled (the electron transfer step is faster than diffusion, every encounter leads to reaction) or activation controlled (the "equilibrium of association" is reached, the electron transfer step is slow, the separation of the successor complex is fast). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Cross-reactions - Accidental damage of the inner ear by antibodies or T-cells that recognize an inner ear antigen that is similar to a bacterial or viral antigen Genetic factors - Predisposition to developing an autoimmune disorder based on genes inherited Intolerance - The immune system may not be aware of all the antigens present in the inner ear until physical damage releases some of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted though that antibodies towards several O antigens cross-react with other O antigens and partially to K antigens not only from E. coli, but also from other Escherichia species and Enterobacteriaceae species. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Purified a-Ro60 antibodies reacted with both peptides and inhibition experiments revealed the specificity of this reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antibodies which the immune system generates against the M protein may cross-react with heart muscle cell protein myosin, heart muscle glycogen and smooth muscle cells of arteries, inducing cytokine release and tissue destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are an issue in allergy diagnosis, where about a fifth of all patients displays IgE antibodies against Asn-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycans) containing core α1,3-linked fucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • scope
  • The scope of the process is extraordinarily broad with respect to both coupling partners, and a preliminary study has established the principle that a high degree of stereochemical control over the reaction can also be exercised via the use of a chiral NHC precursor. (rsc.org)
  • Assay
  • In an assay for a target nucleotide sequence employing hybridization with a target probe nucleotide sequence, cross reaction between the target probe and a non-target nucleotide sequence, capable of hybridizing with the target probe, is prevented or diminished by introducing, at some point during the hybridization, a non-target probe which hybridizes preferentially with the non-target nucleotide sequence. (google.com)
  • transition
  • Conducting transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling chemistry in water instead of organic solvent has a number of potential benefits in terms of cost, environmental impact, safety, and impurity profiles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One solution applied to a broad range of transition-metal-catalyzed processes is the use of small amounts of a nanomicelle-forming amphiphile in water, which provides a lipophilic medium where cross-coupling reactions can take place. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • mild
  • A number of palladium and ruthenium-catalyzed processes were found to be amenable to mild, room temperature reactions in water. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • species
  • A 3-10% solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) gives a color change in some species of mushrooms: In Agaricus, some species such as A. xanthodermus turn yellow with KOH, many have no reaction, and A. subrutilescens turns green. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Idiotypic cross-reactions were evaluated in 60 polynucleotide-binding monoclonal lupus autoantibodies produced by human-human hybridomas that were derived from seven unrelated patients with SLE. (rupress.org)
  • A monoclonal antiidiotype reagent cross-reacted with autoantibodies from six of the seven patients. (rupress.org)
  • The idiotypic cross-reactions of immunoglobulins from unrelated patients suggest that the autoantibodies are derived from related families of germ line genes that are expressed by patients with SLE. (rupress.org)
  • sometimes
  • An example of the confusing serologic reactions which sometimes are obtained may be of interest: A young man developed undulant fever, with the date of onset in June 1936. (jamanetwork.com)
  • different
  • The mechanisms involved in Ni-catalysed reactions are different from the usual catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition-transmetalation-reductive elimination that is generally accepted for Pd-catalysed reactions. (rsc.org)
  • Usually
  • Furthermore, this new, more practical surfactant can be readily be substituted for older amphiphiles, usually with equal or greater efficiency in terms of both yield and reaction times. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • introduce
  • Sonogashira reaction turned out to be the most effective and convenient method to introduce functionalized alkynyl group into the heterocyclic cores. (hu-berlin.de)