• cattle
  • The disease is different in cattle and sheep and cross-infection is not thought to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of this success can be attributed to sustained cattle controls reducing cross-infection and breaking the disease cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, 40% of cattle in the UK were infected with M. bovis and there were 50,000 new cases of human M. bovis infection every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Badgers (Meles meles) were first identified as carriers of M. bovis in 1971, but the report of an independent review committee in 1997 (The Krebs Report) concluded that while there was 'strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that badgers represent a significant source of M. bovis infection in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Actual infections in humans are nowadays rare in developed countries, mainly because pasteurisation kills M. bovis bacteria in infected milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instances of mortality from S. canis in humans are very low with only a few reported cases, while actual instances of infection may be underreported due to mischaracterizations of the bacteria as S. dysgalactiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • causal
  • Background: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. (oregonstate.edu)
  • symptoms
  • Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The main signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty-tasting skin, poor growth, and poor weight gain despite normal food intake, accumulation of thick, sticky mucus, frequent chest infections, and coughing or shortness of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation and infection cause injury and structural changes to the lungs, leading to a variety of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cacao trees, first symptoms of infection usually present as a sparse white mycelium on the bark surface, which can be easily overlooked. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of growth failure are multifactorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O), also known as "laughing gas", easily crosses the alveoli of the lung and is dissolved into the passing blood, where it travels to the brain, leaving a dissociated and euphoric feeling in most cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Sheep custodians can assist by ensuring infected lambs receive sufficient milk and separating out the infected stock to slow down cross-transmission to healthy animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • hygiene
  • Our surgery incorporates the latest technology and design to give optimum patient comfort, also maintaining the highest standards of hygiene and cross infection protocol. (dentalclinic.ie)
  • Strict hygiene measures should be adopted, to minimise the risk of infection spreading to other horses. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of pathogen spread in the home and introducing hygiene practices at critical times to break the chain of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Signs of infection, which begin to develop a few days after exposure to the virus, include a husky cough and nasal discharge (which changes over a period of four to five days from thin to thick mucus), combined with general signs of ill health. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Results: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Signs
  • It is vital that veterinary advice is sought as soon as a horse shows signs of a possible infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • The infection takes three weeks to have an obvious effect, with the first signs (muscle stiffness, spasms and a reluctance to move) often becoming apparent some time after the wound has healed. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • structural
  • Methods: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Study
  • The results of this study demonstrate the application of SEMs to understanding epidemiological processes using observational data, and could be used more widely as a complementary tool to understand complex cross-sectional information in a wide variety of disciplines. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Research
  • Research on the risks of cross-contamination arose immediately after the invention of jet injection technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Another severe case was reported pharyngitis, genital lesions and infection of the hooves which led to lameness and, in some cases, sloughing of the hoof. (wikipedia.org)
  • care
  • The healthier the horse and the higher the standards of horse care, the greater the chance of fighting and minimising the effects of an infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • We sought to characterise the HIV care continuum and identify correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia. (bmj.com)
  • Sample and population estimates were calculated for key steps along the HIV care continuum for HIV-infected MSM and logistic regression methods were used to examine correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection. (bmj.com)
  • treatment
  • However, it has been contested if STSS and NF are caused solely by S. canis infection or if it is induced from the treatment of dogs with fluoroquinolone during the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • The first sign of a foot-rot infection is when the skin between the claws of the hoof begins to swell (cellulitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Infected locations can include the finger, hand, arm, face and even the penis (caused by infection either from the hand during urination or from bestiality). (wikipedia.org)