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  • causes
  • Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. (definitions.net)
  • course
  • The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. (definitions.net)
  • Figure 2: A coronal CT image in bone windows also shows bony expansion in the course of the left facial nerve. (blogspot.com)
  • On noncontrast temporal bone CT, the findings include a tubular soft tissue mass along the course of the facial nerve with enlargement of the facial nerve canal. (blogspot.com)
  • Lesions
  • In some cases, if lesions are present in the taste pathway and nerves have been damaged, the dysgeusia may be permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collier, however, was "unable to accept this explanation", his view being that since the sixth nerve emerges straight forward from the brain stem, whereas other cranial nerves emerge obliquely or transversely, it is more liable to the mechanical effects of backward brain stem displacement by intracranial space occupying lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A differential diagnosis includes lymphoproliferative lesions, thyroid ophthalmopathy, IgG4-related ophthalmic disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, orbital cellulitis and carotid-cavernous fistula. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • It is caused in part by prolonged hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and results in dysfunction of one or both tibial nerves and a plantigrade stance (down on the hocks). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the disease progresses, neuronal dysfunction correlates closely with the developmooent of blood vessel abnormalities, such as capillary basement membrane thickening and endothelial hyperplasia, which contribute to diminished oxygen tension and hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve dysfunction induces esotropia, a convergent squint on distance fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • idiopathic
  • Idiopathic orbital inflammatory (IOI) disease, or orbital pseudotumor, refers to a marginated mass-like enhancing soft tissue involving any area of the orbit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best imaging modality for idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease is contrast-enhanced thin section magnetic resonance with fat suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • The accessory nerve is motor to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections in the posterior pharynx can irritate the nerves supplying the neck muscles and cause torticollis, and these infections may be treated with antibiotics if they are not too severe, but could require surgical debridement in intractable cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progression to involve other cranial nerve muscles occurs over a period of months or years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the brain stem as a number of small rootlets, passes through the hypoglossal canal and down through the neck, and eventually passes up again over the tongue muscles it supplies into the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypoglossal nerve moves forward deep to the hyoglossus and stylohyoid muscles and lingual nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypoglossal nerve provides motor control of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue: genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, and the intrinsic muscles of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull base
  • CT and MR imaging demonstrated enlargement of several cranial nerves, as well as their skull-base foramina, with faint contrast material enhancement identified. (ajnr.org)
  • CT images demonstrated enlargement of multiple skull-base foramina ( Fig 2 ), whereas the MR images better demonstrated enlargement of the cranial nerves themselves ( Fig 3 ). (ajnr.org)
  • A-C , Thin-section (1-mm) coronal and axial CT images of the skull base obtained with an edge-enhancing bone algorithm show enlargement (arrows) of the mastoid canals of cranial nerve VII ( A ), the foramina of ovale ( B ), and rotundum (C) bilaterally. (ajnr.org)
  • Tumors of the skull base (posterior fossa tumors) can compress the nerve supply to the neck and cause torticollis, and these problems must be treated surgically. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • It is possible for a disorder of more than one cranial nerve to occur at the same time, if a trauma occurs at a location where many cranial nerves run together, such as the jugular fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bulk of the imaging literature of this disorder concerns the identification of nerve root enlargement, often massive, within the lumbosacral spine in patients with nerve compression syndromes ( 2 - 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Case reports describing the imaging appearance of nerve hypertrophy in this disorder can be found from the mid-1970s with myelography, in the mid-1980s with CT, and to the current time with MR ( 2 - 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • palsies
  • The clinical consequences of weakness in the superior oblique (caused, for example, by fourth nerve palsies) are discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplopia is typically experienced by adults with VI nerve palsies, but children with the condition may not experience diplopia due to suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood vessels depend on normal nerve function, and nerves depend on adequate blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed. (wikipedia.org)
  • emerges
  • Because the nerve emerges near the bottom of the brain, it is often the first nerve compressed when there is any rise in intracranial pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a point at the level of the angle of the mandible, the hypoglossal nerve emerges from behind the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • ipsilateral
  • The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is referred to an ipsilateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Also called the sorbitol/aldose reductase pathway, the polyol pathway appears to be implicated in diabetic complications, especially in microvascular damage to the retina, kidney, and nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different presentations of the condition, or associations with other conditions, can help to localize the site of the lesion along the VIth cranial nerve pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • eighth
  • At least one case report of strandings in Japan's Goto Islands has been associated with parasitic neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve by a trematode in the genus Nasitrema. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptom
  • An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most prominent symptom in Kawasaki disease, is a characteristic sign of the acute phase of the disease, is normally high (above 39-40 °C), is remittent, and is followed by extreme irritability. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • It is later expressed in the neural crest derived cells of the cranial ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the nerve or the neural pathways which control it can affect the ability of the tongue to move and its appearance, with the most common sources of damage being injury from trauma or surgery, and motor neuron disease. (wikipedia.org)