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  • blends
  • If Ms. Goldenberg and Mr. Krugman are so worried about shrinking corn crops and the resulting worldwide famine, then they should be fighting against the EPA's mandated ethanol gasoline blends. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The end result is that the amount of gasoline-ethanol blends consumed in 2023 will likely be 12% less than 2014 levels. (navigantresearch.com)
  • After the end of the war cheap oil caused gasoline to prevail, and ethanol blends were only used sporadically, mostly to take advantage of sugar surpluses, until the seventies, when the first oil crisis resulted in gasoline shortages and awareness of the dangers of oil dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2011 most cars on U.S. roads could run on blends of up to 10% ethanol(E10), and manufacturers had begun producing vehicles designed for much higher percentages. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher ethanol
  • Although the EPA's reasoning makes sense, ethanol industry advocates point to higher ethanol blend levels of E15 and E85 as possible avenues by which the original mandate could still be achieved. (navigantresearch.com)
  • The present results demonstrated that expression of the acid protease increased both growth rate and viable yeast counts and the recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae exhibited a higher ethanol yield as compared to the parent strain. (naver.com)
  • producers
  • For corn and ethanol sorghum producers that use the new Efficient Producer petition process appropriately, we have designed the review process to be expedited. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • EPA's proposed regulations also included ILUC, causing additional controversy among ethanol producers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food producers reduce production costs by adding varying amounts of cornstarch to foods, for example to cheese and yogurt. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, they state that refiners and producers could improve the efficiency of the refineries and upstream production, or may purchase and blend more low-carbon ethanol into gasoline products, or purchase credits from electric utilities supplying low carbon electrons to electric passenger vehicles, or diversifying and selling low carbon hydrogen for use by vehicles as a product, or any new strategy as the standard is being designed. (wikipedia.org)
  • EPA's
  • We also encouraged farmers and ethanol supporters to submit comments about EPA's latest proposal to slash the corn ethanol portion of the RFS. (mncorn.org)
  • EPA's proposed cuts to the RFS would damage air quality, limit choices at the pump and could cost corn farmers up to $271 million in lost revenue. (mncorn.org)
  • yields
  • Agricultural biotechnology is helping to increase corn yields, while industrial biotechnology is helping to convert corn starch and crop residues into ethanol more efficiently. (bio.org)
  • switchgrass
  • This rapid increase in Xethanol's stock price could be attributed largely to President Bush's 2006 State of the Union Address on January 31 in which he announced that the administration was undertaking a major new effort to develop technology for the production of "cellulosic ethanol" from agricultural materials such as switchgrass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corn stover, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 study by the University of Nebraska found a 5.4 energy balance for ethanol derived specifically from switchgrass. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • This would reduce the overall production cost of bio‐ethanol and thus making starch‐based substrates more attractive as an alternative energy source. (sun.ac.za)
  • In the first part of this study, 36 fungal strains known for the production of amylases were screened and compared for the highest extracellular enzyme activity on raw corn starch. (sun.ac.za)
  • The combination of the two recombinant yeast strains was able to completely hydrolyse and also utilize raw corn starch for the production of bio‐ethanol, with a yield of 11.04 g/l of ethanol, which translates to 98% of the theoretical yield from starch with a 52% conversion of the total raw starch. (sun.ac.za)
  • The program was designed to take "environmentally sensitive" land out of row-crop production, but Ernst said too much prime ground for corn and soybeans is being idled in the CRP. (radioiowa.com)
  • BIO supports the production of ethanol from all feedstocks. (bio.org)
  • To achieve these goals some believe it will be necessary to develop and commercialize technology for the production of ethanol from cellulose and hemicellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though there are about five companies currently working on production of ethanol from cellulose, Xethanol was virtually the only company public at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, led George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first commercialized ethanol production began in Germany in 1898, where acid was used to hydrolyze cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first phase of the program concentrated on production of anhydrous ethanol for blending with gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus in recent years has been on the improvement of the material, energy and life cycle assessment of the production of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • depending on production method In order to create ethanol, all biomass needs to go through some of these steps: it needs to be grown, collected, dried, fermented, and burned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of corn ethanol production in the U.S. often quote the 2005 paper of David Pimentel, a retired Entomologist, and Tadeusz Patzek, a Geological Engineer from UC Berkeley. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Ethanol is not the only product created during production. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower quantities of production, Wang finds it appropriate to credit corn ethanol based on the input energy requirement of the feed product or good that the ethanol by-product displaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most expansion projects are aimed to update the refinery's technology to improve ethanol production, energy efficiency, and the quality of the livestock feed they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • E100
  • The ethanol-powered "flex" vehicles, as they are popularly known, are manufactured to tolerate hydrated ethanol (E100), an azeotrope composed of 95.6% ethanol and 4.4% water. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • The cost saving will be mainly due to the elimination of the pre‐treatment of raw starch at high temperatures and the addition of enzymes for the liquefaction and saccharification of starch to simple sugars. (sun.ac.za)
  • However, as there is no currently no known microbial organism known that can produce the required enzymes (i.e. amylases) as well as ferment the resulting sugars to ethanol, heterologous expression of these enzymes in a host strain able to ferment sugars could provide the best alternative system. (sun.ac.za)
  • and (e) optionally fermenting the sugars to step (d) to produce ethanol and other chemicals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, and in making corn syrup and other sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • crop
  • Approximately 40% of the crop-130 million tons-is used for corn ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to increases in corn crop yield and more efficient farming practices corn ethanol had gained energy efficiency Ken Cassman, a professor of agronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, said in 2008 that ethanol has a substantial net positive direct energy balance-1.5 to 1.6 more units of energy are derived from ethanol than are used to produce it. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • In a statement provided to Ethanol Producer Magazine Biomass Magazine , an EPA spokeswoman noted that specific time required for the EPA to review a pathway petition depends on the complexity of the application, the similarity of previously evaluated pathways, and whether the petition includes all of the information needed to conduct a lifecycle analysis. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Agricultural
  • The corn stakeholders have been working with the automobile manufacturers, agricultural industry partners, technical agency researchers, and pump manufacturers to apply the principles of the Optima program. (mncorn.org)
  • waxy
  • Comparison of waxy potato with other root and tuber starches (1999) McPherson A.E et al. (naver.com)
  • gelatinization
  • The influence of amylose and amylopectin characteristics on gelatinization and retrogradation properties of different starches (1997) Fredriksson H et al. (naver.com)
  • As the starch is heated, the molecular chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh, thickening the liquid (Starch gelatinization). (wikipedia.org)
  • South Carolina
  • It has announced plans to build new ethanol plants in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina through a newly formed subsidiary known as CoastalXethanol LLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • In 2007 a University of California, Berkeley team led by Farrel evaluated six previous studies, concluding that corn ethanol reduced GHG emissions by only 13 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluten
  • The starch is separated from the corn steep liquor, the cereal germ, the fibers and the corn gluten mostly in hydrocyclones and centrifuges, and then dried. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • Distributed by Statoil, the Bio95 2G mixture uses ethanol derived from wheat straw collected on Danish fields after harvest and produced by Inbicon (a div. of DONG Energy), using enzyme technology from Novozymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • productivity
  • In order to further improve the utilization rate of raw materials and increase ethanol productivity, the gene Asp, encoding aspartic protease in Neurospora crassa was cloned and expressed in industrial ethanol-producing yeast. (naver.com)
  • glucoamylase
  • This rate of conversion is lower than other reports which indicated up to 82% and 96% of the theoretical yield of ethanol from raw and soluble starch, respectively, by α‐ and glucoamylase. (sun.ac.za)
  • enzymes
  • The facility has been designed and engineered to process 40 tons of wheat straw per day into ethanol using enzymes made in an adjacent enzyme manufacturing facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuels
  • Once the the pro-ethanol crow is too tired to stand up and speak out, that's when EPA can truly cave in to Big Oil's demands and deal a crippling blow to ethanol fuels. (mncorn.org)
  • EPA cited a lack of compatible fueling infrastructure to distribute ethanol blended fuels to consumers as the justification for the proposed rule change for 2017. (mncorn.org)
  • Fuels that are considered especially dangerous include: Ethanol can be absorbed into the blood stream without drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • GranBio (formerly known as GraalBio) is building a facility projected to produce 82 million litres of cellulosic ethanol per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Northeast Saskatchewan Renewable Energy Facility will use KL Energy's modern design and engineering to produce ethanol from wood waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing 2008 to 2003, Alan Tiemann of Seward, a Nebraska Corn Board member, said that ethanol plants produce 15 percent more ethanol from a bushel of corn and use about 20 percent less energy in the process. (wikipedia.org)