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  • intron
  • Accordingly, Gu and coworkers [ 4 ] proposed that a combination of K s and other neutral markers, such as intron and flanking regions, should be used to estimate gene duplication rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mu transposon insertion into an intron causes ectopic expression of the knotted1 gene in maize. (asmscience.org)
  • novel
  • We present a novel strategy for estimating gene duplication rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study demonstrated that 2q33-q37 deletions, 3q gains and chromosomal amplifications as characteristic changes in invasive CC. These genetic alterations will aid in the identification of novel tumor suppressor gene(s) at 2q33-q37 and oncogenes at amplified chromosomal sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • study
  • The rate of gene duplication is an important parameter in the study of evolution, but the influence of gene conversion and technical problems have confounded previous attempts to provide a satisfying estimate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genomes
  • With few gymnosperm genomes available, recently obtained transcriptomes in gymnosperms are a great addition to identifying single-copy gene families as molecular markers for phylogenomic analysis in seed plants. (up.ac.za)
  • Taking advantage of an increasing number of available genomes and transcriptomes, we identified singlecopy genes in a broad collection of seed plants and used these to infer phylogenetic relationships between major seed plant taxa. (up.ac.za)
  • As more plant genomes are sequenced, we will obtain increasingly precise information about which genes return to single copy most rapidly following gene duplication and may be most useful across a wide range of plant groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Robustness can be empirically measured for several genomes and individual genes by inducing mutations and measuring what proportion of mutants retain the same phenotype, function or fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • In addition, heterogeneity of plasmid copy number within a population can result in a variation in expression level among single cells. (asm.org)
  • The numbers of salivary amylase genes in some families showing quantitative variation at the protein level have been estimated by the polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • mutation and gene migration create variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of papers starting in 1918 and culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher showed that the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes, and that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogenetic
  • Although some of our analyses support a sister relationship between gnetophytes and other gymnosperms, phylogenetic trees from concatenated alignments without 3rd codon positions and amino acid alignments under theCATþGTRmodel, support gnetophytes as a sister group to Pinaceae.Our phylogenomic analyses demonstrate that, in general, single-copy genes can uncover both recent and deep divergences of seed plant phylogeny. (up.ac.za)
  • The present study is the first to apply genomic sequence of one of these low copy genes, agt1 , as a phylogenetic marker for species-level phylogenetics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At this level, gene exchange and recombination is still possible, and low sequence divergence often limits phylogenetic resolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • locus
  • At the I-2 locus, we identified six additional homologs that included the recently identified I-2C-1 and I-2C-2 genes. (uva.nl)
  • In a series of papers beginning in 1924, another British geneticist, J.B.S. Haldane, worked out the mathematics of allele frequency change at a single gene locus under a broad range of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • In the first step, recombination at both the 358-bp ′ bla region and the 409-bp near-ori region results in transfer of the promoter gene expression system and a functional bla (Amp r ) gene to the phage replacing the Kan r gene. (asm.org)
  • loci
  • Using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) copy number changes at multiple loci can be detected simultaneously in a single simple PCR reaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • quantitative
  • We investigated the clinico-pathologic characteristics of NSCLCs having TITF-1 and or EGFR gene copy number abnormalities by examining gene copy number status using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and DNA extracted from microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 53 adenocarcinomas and 29 squamous cell carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression
  • 2 Center for Cancer Research Core Fluorescence Imaging Facility, Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The high level of gene expression from such plasmids is often desirable, for example in the production of large amounts of a protein for purification purposes. (asm.org)
  • In studies designed to obtain physiologically relevant measurements or to assess in vivo phenotypes, low-level expression from a single copy is usually required. (asm.org)
  • MOGAT2 has more than five tandemly duplicated copies in sheep with the first copy expressed in the duodenum and the last copy expressed in the skin, with no expression of any copy detected in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as posttranscriptional regulators of expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • frequent
  • Our data indicate that copy number changes in several important genes are frequent in the pathogenesis of CLL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thyroid transcription factor -1 (TITF-1, a lineage-specific transcription factor), and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor) have shown frequent gene amplification in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • resistance
  • However, cosmids containing the I-2C-1 or I-2C-2 gene could not confer resistance to plants, indicating that these members are not the functional resistance genes. (uva.nl)
  • This leads to slower advancement of disease in HIV-infected individuals, giving those with greater copy number more resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DYRK1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • idiopathic
  • Then we applied this approach to screen a group of idiopathic infertile men in which the DAZ genes presence was previously assessed by standard PCR analysis. (springer.com)
  • sequence
  • DNA samples were hybridized with the sequence specific probes for each gene and the hybridized probe pairs were ligated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • coli
  • Because of their high copy number, pBR322-derived plasmids ( 3 , 19 ) are widely used in studies with the bacterium Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • protein
  • Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAIP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scale
  • This process encompasses small-scale evolution (changes in gene frequency in a population from one generation to the next) and large-scale evolution (the descent of different species from a common ancestor over many generations). (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The four most widely recognised evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop, changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then influence genetic selection, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Groot PC, Bleeker MJ, Pronk JC, Arwert F, Mager WH, Planta RJ, Eriksson AW, Frants RR (1989) The human α-amylase multigene family consists of haplotypes with variable numbers of genes. (springer.com)
  • The deleted-in-azoospermia ( DAZ ) gene family constitutes the major candidate for the AZFc (azoospermia factor c) phenotype of male infertility, being deleted in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic subjects. (springer.com)
  • Alignments between the various members of the I-2 gene family revealed two significant variable regions within the leucine-rich repeat region. (uva.nl)
  • MOGAT2 and the related MOGAT3 genes are members of the acylglycerol o-acyltransferase family (DGAT2/MOGAT) and are involved in the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) from monoacylglycerol (MAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene-culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes encode much of the information needed to form the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, there are also disadvantages to the use of high-copy-number plasmids. (asm.org)
  • However, in adenocarcinomas, Kaplan-Meier and log rank tests revealed that the median time to death was longer in patients with normal copy number compared with those with abnormal copies for TITF-1 (median 4.76 years, 95% CI 2.95~NA, P = 0.04) and EGFR (4.76 years, 95% CI 3.13~ NA, P =0.04). (aacrjournals.org)
  • different
  • Copy number changes of 20 genes were analyzed at 29 different sites by MLPA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Four DAZ genes are arranged in two clusters in AZFc , and standard analysis by PCR cannot distinguish among the different copies. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, this simple method, being able to distinguish among the different DAZ copies, could be used to screen a larger number of patients and to perform a more accurate diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • candidate
  • 2-Acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 also known as acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) or Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase candidate 5 (DC5) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MOGAT2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • seed plants
  • All studied seed plants shared 1,469 single-copy genes, which are generally involved in functions likeDNAmetabolism, cell cycle, and photosynthesis.Aselected set of 106 single-copy genes provided good resolution for the seed plant phylogeny except for gnetophytes. (up.ac.za)
  • known
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers studying the opsin genes responsible for color-vision pigments have long known that four photopigment opsins exist in birds, reptiles and teleost fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2014, there are about 150 imprinted genes known in the mouse and about half that in humans. (wikipedia.org)