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  • H7N9
  • Local health authorities said the eight-year-old girl has previously been to a live poultry market and is the third H7N9 cases Hunan province reported this year. (jagran.com)
  • Health authorities have strengthened H7N9 prevention and control measures including the closure of live poultry markets in some affected cities. (jagran.com)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - The H7N9 virus appears to have been brought under control in China largely due to restrictions at bird markets, but caused some $6.5 billion in losses to the economy, U.N. experts said on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • There is "no red flag" for H7N9 among poultry, unlike H1N1 which kills off flocks, said Juan Lubroth, chief veterinary officer at the U.N.'s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (reuters.com)
  • To protect human health and people's livelihoods, it is essential to tackle the disease at its source in poultry: efforts need to target eliminating H7N9 from affected farms and markets," said Vincent Martin, FAO's Representative in China. (fao.org)
  • Until recently, H7N9 has demonstrated low pathogenicity, meaning it may cause mild or no illnesses in poultry. (fao.org)
  • New evidence from China's Guangdong Province now indicates that H7N9, while retaining its capacity to also cause severe disease in humans, has shifted to high pathogenicity in poultry, a genetic change that can lead to high mortality for birds within 48 hours of infection. (fao.org)
  • This strain of H7N9 virus has so far not been notified in poultry populations outside of China despite intensified surveillance in neighbouring countries and those at risk. (fao.org)
  • Most human case-patients have been exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. (avianflutalk.com)
  • On 9 January 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China reported to WHO 106 cases of H7N9 which occurred from late November through late December, including 35 deaths, 2 potential cases of human-to-human transmission, and 80 of these 106 persons stating that they have visited live poultry markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been established that many of the human cases of H7N9 appear to have a link to live bird markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • H7N9 virus does not kill poultry, which makes surveillance much more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic characterisation of avian influenza A(H7N9) shows that the H7N9 virus that infects human beings resulted from the recombination of genes between several parent viruses noted in poultry and wild birds in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • It standardized methods of transporting poultry to reduce spread among birds. (reuters.com)
  • As during previous waves, most of the patients infected reported a history of visiting live bird markets or coming into contact with infected birds. (fao.org)
  • Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been recommended that samples of drinking water shared by birds maintained within the same cage and samples of poultry feces be used to detect virus within LPMs ( 10 , 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Several poultry birds including chickens and goose were raised about 3,000 years ago. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • A live attenuated virus is available for prevention of the disease in birds. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • For example, in poultry farming, to minimize welfare costs to the birds. (coursera.org)
  • Poultry litter is used in confinement buildings used for raising broilers, turkeys and other birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some materials may meet industry goals once under the birds but if it is difficult to obtain, it will not find favor as a poultry litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the litter becomes too wet and the litter is allowed to become "sealed", then the birds will be living on a damp, slippery and sticky surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1996 and 2008 however, HPAI outbreaks in poultry have occurred at least 11 times and 4 of these outbreaks have involved millions of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been a number of farming practices that have changed in response to outbreaks of the H5N1 virus, including: vaccinating poultry against bird flu vaccinating poultry workers against human flu limiting travel in areas where H5N1 is found increasing farm hygiene reducing contact between livestock and wild birds reducing open-air wet markets limiting workers contact with cock fighting reducing purchases of live fowl improving veterinary vaccine availability and cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Soil Association standards used to certify organic flocks in the UK, indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per hectare and a maximum of 2,000 hens in each poultry house. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor poultry farmers can't afford mandated measures keeping their bird livestock from contact with wild birds (and other measures) thus risking losing their livelihood altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multinational poultry farming is increasingly becoming a profit loser as H5N1 achieves status as endemic in wild birds worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1
  • Prevalence of influenza A(H5N1) virus-positive environmental samples from live poultry markets, by collection week, during the Khmer New Year festival, Cambodia, 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • According to The New York Times, due to the H5N1 threat, as of March 2006: "governments worldwide have spent billions planning for a potential influenza pandemic: buying medicines, running disaster drills, [and] developing strategies for tighter border controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cost of poultry farming has increased, while the cost to consumers has gone down due to fears from H5N1 driving demand below supply, resulting in devastating losses for many poultry farmers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some believe The deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu is essentially a problem of industrial poultry practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • Dead chickens are seen at a poultry farm on the outskirts of Shanghai April 16, 2013. (reuters.com)
  • That may potentially make it easier to see when chickens are infected, facilitate introduction of control measures also at the farm level, but also raises the risk of severe animal and economic losses for those engaged in poultry production and sales. (fao.org)
  • As mortality is often 100 percent in young chickens, ND is probably the most important constraint to family poultry development. (fao.org)
  • Local chickens, Sampov (domesticated mallards), and Kaki Campbell ducks (domesticated Muscovy ducks) were the only live poultry observed in the markets. (cdc.gov)
  • The focus is primarily on laying hens and meat chickens (broilers) although many of the principles are relevant to other types of poultry. (coursera.org)
  • Learning Objectives: at the end of this course, you will be able to - - Describe avian sensory perception and motivation - Explain the main behaviour patterns of poultry - Define welfare and explain the bases of welfare standards - Assess chicken welfare, using behavioural and physiological means - Understand common welfare problems of chickens This course is taught by staff from Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), University of Glasgow, and St David's Poultry Team. (coursera.org)
  • Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that in many countries, by approximately 72 weeks of age, flocks are considered economically unviable and are slaughtered after approximately 12 months of egg production, although chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free-range farmers have less control than farmers using cages in what food their chickens eat, which can lead to unreliable productivity, though supplementary feeding reduces this uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • growers
  • The proposed amendments will identify criteria that the Secretary may consider when determining whether a live poultry dealer's use of a poultry grower ranking system for ranking poultry growers for settlement purposes is unfair, unjustly discriminatory, or deceptive or gives an undue or unreasonable preference, advantage, prejudice, or disadvantage. (federalregister.gov)
  • Without a useful purpose for the used litter, poultry growers would need to dispose of unmanageable quantities of old litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the new material has increased value once removed from the poultry house compared to current litters or if the current litter material itself becomes difficult to obtain or the quality is decreases, poultry growers may decide to use the new litter material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bedding material must not be toxic to poultry or to poultry growers. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventilation
  • Inadequate ventilation of poultry houses results in a build-up of ammonia gas from poultry faeces, which contain urea. (fao.org)
  • The heating and ventilation systems in a poultry house must be continuously monitored to keep the moisture content of the litter controlled so that the litter remains friable (easily broken up or crumbly). (wikipedia.org)
  • cages
  • In each market, we collected environmental samples from 4-5 poultry cages or from stalls where poultry were gathered. (cdc.gov)
  • cattle
  • Others infect poultry (E. necatrix and E. tenella), rabbits (E. stiedae) and cattle (E. bovis, E. ellipsoidalis, and E. zuernii). (wikipedia.org)
  • eradicate
  • The growing impact of the virus, which has now killed 22 and infected at least 108 others over the last three months , has prompted a number of studies attempting to explain, control and eradicate the problem. (shanghaiist.com)
  • prevention
  • Continuing to guide the provinces to strengthen assessment, and prevention and control measures. (avianflutalk.com)
  • Conducting detailed source investigations to inform effective prevention and control measures. (avianflutalk.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • adult
  • The CDC recommends that children under 5 should not touch or handle chicks, ducklings or any live poultry without adult supervision. (philly.com)
  • infections
  • Eimeria infections are particularly damaging to the poultry industry and costs the United States more than $1.5 billion in annual loses. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • China has been quick to notify international organizations about the virus' recent change from low to high pathogenicity in poultry. (fao.org)
  • Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected. (avianflutalk.com)
  • disease
  • Disease control is discussed in a later section of this chapter. (fao.org)
  • cientific breeding has improved the size, resistance to disease, quality of flesh and productivity of poultry. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Hydatic disease (aka echinococcosis) of the liver, lung, and peritoneum (caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus) or of the alveoli (caused by E. multilocularis) when surgical excision is not possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • pest control
  • Appropriate irradiation doses are also used to produce insects for use in the sterile insect technique of pest control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic farming - form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • industry
  • China's government had spent 600 million RMB or $97 million to support healthy development of the poultry industry, Li said. (reuters.com)
  • A modern phase of industry is the raising of chicks in highly mechanized indoor batteries where each bird is kept in a separate compartment and temperature, humidity and diet are carefully controlled. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • Pakistan has established itself as a complex of profitable industries and obtained a vantage place in the economy of the country through popularizing the poultry industry. (pakistaneconomist.com)
  • animals
  • Natural commodities, such as live animals and vegetables, for example, are described the early sections of the HS, whereas more evolved goods such as machinery and precision instruments are described in later sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • trade
  • Neighbouring countries remain at high risk, and all those that have poultry trade connections - either formal or informal - to China. (fao.org)
  • climate
  • The alligators spend their entire lives indoors in barns where everything is controlled, including food, climate and water temperature. (wkar.org)