• otoliths
  • Our results indicate that reliable 3D reconstructions of inner ears including otoliths and maculae can be obtained by using high-resolution microCT imaging of specimens stained with phosphotungstic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptors
  • It is the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to pressure waves reaching the basilar membrane through the transduction of sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair cells of the cristae activate afferent receptors in response to rotational acceleration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory contribution to perception and action depends on both sensory receptors and the organization of pathways (or projections) reaching the central nervous system. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In order to determine whether recruited macrophages contribute to the regeneration of sensory receptors, we quantified supporting cell proliferation and hair cell recovery after the elimination of most resident macrophages via application of liposomally-encapsulated clodronate. (jove.com)
  • neurons
  • The vestibular ganglion houses the cell bodies of the bipolar neurons and extends processes to five sensory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first sensory neurons (pseodounipolar ganglionic cells) are located in the trigeminal, or the Gassepovov, site (ganglion trigeminale) - form, homologous spinal site. (scribd.com)
  • The central processes of these neurons are part of tegmentum of pons and terminate in the sensory nuclei of trigeminal nerve: nucleus tractus n. trigemini (pain, temperatura), the zone which applies to cervical segments of the spinal cord, and nucleus sensorius superior (tactile sensitivity). (scribd.com)
  • cochlea
  • It uses the same kinds of fluids and detection cells (hair cells) as the cochlea uses, and sends information to the brain about the attitude, rotation, and linear motion of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We found that the undamaged chick cochlea contains a large resting population of macrophages that reside in the hyaline cell region, immediately outside the abneural (inferior) border of the sensory epithelium. (jove.com)
  • cochlear
  • The hair cells develop from the lateral and medial ridges of the cochlear duct, which together with the tectorial membrane make up the organ of Corti. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study characterized the behavior of cochlear macrophages after aminoglycoside ototoxicity and also examined the possible role of macrophages in sensory regeneration. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • The kinocilium is the only sensory aspect of the hair cell and is what causes hair cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on whether the tilt is in the direction of the kinocilium or not, the resulting hair cell polarisation is excitatory (depolarising) or inhibitory (hyperpolarisation), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Following ototoxic injury, macrophages appear to migrate out of the hyaline cell region and towards the basilar membrane, congregating immediately below the lesioned sensory epithelium. (jove.com)
  • Examination of macrophage-depleted specimens at two days following ototoxic injury revealed no deficits in hair cell clearance, when compared to normal controls. (jove.com)
  • Hair cell regeneration is mediated by glia-like supporting cells, which contact the basolateral surfaces of hair cells in the sensory epithelium 9, 10 . (jove.com)
  • Supporting cells are also important mediators of hair cell survival and death 11 . (jove.com)
  • Supporting cell infection efficiency is approximately 25-50%, and hair cells are not infected ( Figure 2 ). (jove.com)
  • Importantly, we find that adenoviral infection of supporting cells does not result in toxicity to hair cells or supporting cells, as cell counts in Ad-GFP infected utricles are equivalent to those in non-infected utricles ( Figure 3 ). (jove.com)
  • Thus adenovirus-mediated gene expression in supporting cells of cultured utricles provides a powerful tool to study the roles of supporting cells as mediators of hair cell survival, death, and regeneration. (jove.com)
  • subsequent
  • PTA staining and subsequent high-resolution contrast enhanced microCT imaging is a powerful method to obtain 3D models of fish inner ears and maculae in a fast and more reliable manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • studies
  • Future studies investigating functional morphology, phylogenetic potential of inner ear features, or evolution of hearing and inner ear specialization in fishes may benefit from the use of 3D models of inner ears and maculae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • zone
  • Ascertain presence of subjective sensation of pain and sensory disorder (numbness) in the zone of innervations. (scribd.com)
  • replacement
  • In addition, we found that elimination of macrophages did not affect either regenerative proliferation of supporting cells or the production of replacement hair cells. (jove.com)
  • study
  • The aim of our study therefore was to establish a fast and more reliable method to three-dimensionally reconstruct whole inner ears of fishes with special focus on the reconstruction of the 3D curvature of maculae. (biomedcentral.com)