• amino acids
  • Citric acid also slows the oxidation process that causes fats to turn rancid and proteins to deteriorate, which inhibits spoilage of foods and other products that contain fats, proteins and amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other biochemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PDHB gene encodes a precursor protein that has 359 amino acid residues and a final mature protein that has 329 amino acids, and is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preliminary peptide encoded by this gene was 29 amino acids at the very start of the sequence that correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E1 alpha peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydrous
  • Because of its high solubility, citric acid is preferred in its anhydrous crystal form by the food industry, where it is widely used to add acidity to products. (reference.com)
  • The anhydrous crystals are much more stable and can be stored for long-term, industrial use without fear of the acid melting away due to contact with moisture in the air. (reference.com)
  • The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when citric acid is crystallized from cold water. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • Acetyl-CoA may also be obtained from the oxidation of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PDHA1 subunit has been shown to be regulated by free fatty acids during bouts of exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of free fatty acids increases the level of phosphorylation, thereby decreasing PDH activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique (later known as the Just Milk Process) involves first treating a sample of milk with calcium chloride to reduce its acidity and then with alkaline hypochlorite to preserve the fatty acids in the finished product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrate
  • Most living organisms synthesize citric acid in the form of citrate. (reference.com)
  • Industrial-scale citric acid production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) to precipitate calcium citrate, which was isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with calcium hydroxide to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid, as in the direct extraction from citrus fruit juice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a schematic outline of the cycle: The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Pyridoxal phosphate (a derivative of pyridoxine) is required for d-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in heme synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • Most cells will then carry out further reactions to 'repay' the used NAD+ and produce a final product of ethanol or lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvic acid
  • Other names in common use include MtPDC (mitochondrial pyruvate dehydogenase complex), pyruvate decarboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and, acceptor-acetylating), pyruvic acid dehydrogenase, and pyruvic dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrochloric acid
  • How strong is the hydrochloric acid in toilet bowl cleaners? (reference.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid used in toilet bowl cleaners comes in a variety of strengths ranging from a low of seven percent up to a maximum of 40 percent, depending. (reference.com)
  • buffering and neutralizing gastric hydrochloric acid. (drugs.com)
  • vegetables
  • Citric acid is a food additive found in soft drinks, candy and canned vegetables and fruit. (reference.com)
  • Lauric acid is a saturated fat found in vegetables that provides a multitude of health benefits, such as helping to treat viral infections, according to We. (reference.com)
  • Exposure
  • Too much exposure to citric acid can cause mild skin irritation, and it may be a good idea not to use skin products containing it if you have sensitive skin . (wisegeek.org)
  • nitric
  • What household products contain nitric acid? (reference.com)
  • The household products that contain nitric acid include the Cascade Automatic Dishwashing Liquigel and Cascade Dishwashing Detergent Gel, Fresh Scent, acco. (reference.com)
  • apples
  • Unfortunately, when apple slices are exposed to air, they quickly turn an unappetizing shade of brown and lose valuable vitamin C. Several solutions, including those made with citric acid, help you preserve and enjoy cut apples. (livestrong.com)
  • producers
  • In 1917, American food chemist James Currie discovered certain strains of the mold Aspergillus niger could be efficient citric acid producers, and the pharmaceutical company Pfizer began industrial-level production using this technique two years later, followed by Citrique Belge in 1929. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, in the past five years, Chinascitric acid production has been expanding slowly due to demand increase very slowly. (slideshare.net)
  • However, microbial production of citric acid did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports. (wikipedia.org)
  • People
  • People use citric acid for cooking, canning, drying and freezing. (reference.com)
  • One possible reason people believe that they had "bad acid" could be because they were simply sold a much higher dose than usual, which is not uncommon due to the inherent lack of quality control of illicit drugs. (wikipedia.org)