• enforcement
  • 2. Some victims are subject to harassment and organized stalking in their communities, some victims receive false psychiatric diagnosis and in addition become victims of the systems, from which they are seeking help (medical institutions and law enforcement). (change.org)
  • In their article "Collaboration Between Public Heath and Law Enforcement: New Paradigms and Partnerships for Bioterrorism Planning and Response," Butler et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Formal law-enforcement departments were formed several years after the ratification of the Constitution. (cdc.gov)
  • Originally, these departments had broader responsibilities than do modern law-enforcement agencies, including some public health functions, so calling them police forces was more consistent with their original function than their current one. (cdc.gov)
  • Even pressure to bring the quality of Federal drug-law enforcement up toward the incomparably high standards of the FBI would have made a great difference over the years. (druglibrary.net)
  • Attorney General Clark had guiding authority for such moves, in some of the recommendations of the 1962-63 White House Conference, in the 1967 findings of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, and in the good work then being done by the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws (commissioned by Congress in 1966 to develop a new federal penal code). (druglibrary.net)
  • Our concern is more an orderly society through law enforcement. (druglibrary.net)
  • Clark put too many restraints on the law-enforcement agencies. (druglibrary.net)
  • I'm not opposed to civil liberties, but I think they come from good law enforcement. (druglibrary.net)
  • 2.1.6 Describe the history and impact of including women and diverse community representation in law enforcement. (hennepintech.edu)
  • Criminal law enforcement in the United States is multi-jurisdictional. (typepad.com)
  • Oddly, one place that commentators have not looked for guidance is within the states themselves to see how they handle the issue of law enforcement allocation. (typepad.com)
  • This Article accordingly looks to the states for guidance on when criminal enforcement responsibility should rest with local authorities and when it should reside with a more centralized actor (be it one at the state- or federal-level). (typepad.com)
  • A comprehensive empirical survey of criminal law enforcement responsibility in the states - including a review of state codes and case law and interviews with state prosecutors - reveals remarkable similarity among the states about the degree of local control that is desirable. (typepad.com)
  • principles
  • 4. The Executive Authority or Government shall be vested in the Sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and be administered according to the well-understood principles of the British Constitution, by the Sovereign personally, or by the Representative of the Sovereign duly authorized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Justice Samuel Chase argued that the government has no authority to interfere with an individual's rights, and "the general principles of law and reason" forbid the legislature from interfering. (wikipedia.org)
  • An act of the Legislature (for I cannot call it a law) contrary to the great first principles of the social compact, cannot be considered a rightful exercise of legislative authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • PROMULGATES the Constitution of the Italian Republic in the following text: The Fundamental Principles are unchangeable, and solemnly declare the unshakeable foundations on which the new State was constructed, starting with the democratic nature of the Republic, in which the sovereignty belongs to the people and is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Principles of Public International Law Ex: i. sovereigns and other chiefs of state ii. (slideshare.net)
  • Substantive criminal law embodies both specific prohibitions and the general principles within which those prohibitions are construed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • substantive
  • Criminal law, in the substantive sense, is a body of norms, formally promulgated through specified governmental organs, contravention of which warrants the imposition of punishment through a special proceeding maintained in the name of the people or the state. (encyclopedia.com)
  • statutes
  • 2 : the quality or state of being legal Businessdictionary.com, thelawdictionary.org, and mylawdictionary.org definition explains concept of attachment to law as Implied warranty that an act, agreement, or contract strictly adheres to the statutes of a particular jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditionalist will insist that statutes like these are still law, while the functionalist will say that they are not law at all because they are never invoked. (encyclopedia.com)
  • crimes
  • Most of the Marshall Court's criminal opinions involved defining the elements of federal crimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, the Court twice disclaimed the authority to define common law crimes not proscribed by Congressional statute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act provided that "there shall be appointed in each district" a "person learned in the law to act as attorney for the United States in such district, who shall be sworn or affirmed to the faithful execution of his office, whose duty it shall be to prosecute in such district all delinquents for crimes and offences, cognizable under the authority of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Armed Career Criminal Act of 1984 (ACCA) is a United States federal law that provides sentence enhancements for felons who commit crimes with firearms if they are convicted of certain crimes three or more times. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2007 Criminal Law SUMMER REVIEWER BOOK I CRIMINAL LAW - A branch of municipal law which defines crimes, treats of their nature and provides for their punishment. (slideshare.net)
  • above-mentioned obligations and securities d. while being public officers and employees, an offense committed in the exercise of their functions e. crimes against national security and the law of the nations defined in Title One of Book Two retroactive effect. (slideshare.net)
  • Parliament
  • The terms of s. 91(27) of the Constitution must be read as assigning to Parliament exclusive jurisdiction over criminal law in the widest sense of the term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we are not concerned with the result in law of the exercise by Parliament of one of its exclusive heads of jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The issues relating to prohibitions and penalties can be approached separately, as noted by Laskin C.J. in Attorney General of Canada v. Canadian National Transportation, Ltd.: It is certainly open to the Parliament of Canada, in legislating in relation to s. 91(27), to take a disjunctive view of the very wide criminal law power which it possesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • That Act assigns criminal law exclusively to the federal Parliament. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Court also noted that in Morgentaler v. The Queen (1975), it had been found that the abortion law later struck down in 1988 had been criminal law, and as such it had been appropriately passed by Parliament as opposed to by a provincial legislature. (wikipedia.org)
  • All laws applicable in Queensland are authorised by the Parliament of Queensland, with the exception of specific legislation defined in the Constitution of Australia, criminal law applying under the Australia Act 1986 as well as older laws passed by New South Wales and the United Kingdom because the state was a former colony. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Constitution of Queensland Act 2001, members of Parliament must swear an oath or affirmation to the Sovereign as well as an oath of office before signing a Roll of Members. (wikipedia.org)
  • legislation
  • Indeed, the converse is the question: what, if anything, is the result in law of legislation by a province where it may be classified as essentially criminal in nature? (wikipedia.org)
  • In considering the law's pith and substance, this raised the question of whether the provincial government's true motives for enacting the legislation was not to regulate hospitals or medicine, but to limit what it saw as "the socially undesirable conduct of abortion" (which would be a criminal law function). (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority require enabling legislation, referred to as accomplishment of constitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • For an analysis of the ACCA's legislative history and proposals for amending the ACCA, consult this 2009 article from the Harvard Journal on Legislation: The Armed Career Criminal Act and the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines: Moving Toward Consistency, 46 Harv. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • The Marshall Court also issued important opinions regarding criminal procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Criminal procedure is formalized official activity that authenticates the fact of commission of a crime and authorizes punitive treatment of the offender. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In print and online, Investigative Criminal Procedure: A Contemporary Approach (Interactive Casebook Series) comprehensively presents both the modern and historical conceptions of the pretrial rights guaranteed by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments. (barristerbooks.com)
  • legislate
  • After the establishment of the South Korean government, the Committee of Law Compilation (법률편찬위원회) proceed to legislate civil code and other codes in 1948 and completed in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provincial
  • Justice John Sopinka, writing for a unanimous Court, simply agreed with the argument that these specific abortion regulations, rather than being a valid provincial regulation of hospitals and medicine, instead constituted an invalid criminal law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Court then quoted Nova Scotia's Hansard, which reinforced the notion that the provincial government saw Morgentaler's clinics as a "public evil which should be eliminated" and minimized the argument that the law had been meant to combat privatization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The provincial regulations were also ruled to be very similar to the federal abortion law struck down in 1988 (although Nova Scotia did not resurrect the Therapeutic Abortion Committees of the federal law). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Court held that, despite overlapping with valid federal law, the provincial law that restricted the amount of nudity in bars was constitutionally valid. (wikipedia.org)
  • power
  • The criminal law power is not unlimited in scope, as noted recently in the Reference re Assisted Human Reproduction Act, where the majority held that it is not enough to identify a public purpose that would have justified Parliament's action - it must also involve suppressing an evil or safeguarding a threatened interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The weak union of the Articles of Confederation made it difficult to wage the Revolutionary War, so the Constitution provided a strong central government with the power to wage war and raise revenue directly, without depending on state legislatures. (cdc.gov)
  • All these groups were deeply anti-fascist, so there was general agreement against an authoritarian constitution, putting more emphasis on the legislative power and making the executive power dependent on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, under the US Constitution, the US Congress has no power or authority of any kind to admit even 1 immigrant into the United States. (alipac.us)
  • Local, state, and federal prosecutors all possess the power to bring criminal charges. (typepad.com)
  • sanction
  • As Alexander Hamilton noted in Federalist No. 21, a "most palpable defect of the subsisting Confederation, is the total want of a sanction to its laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurisdiction
  • Legality can be defined as an act, agreement, or contract that is consistent with the law or state of being lawful or unlawful in a given jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • penalty
  • The principle can be varyingly expressed in Latin phrases such as Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali (No crime can be committed, nor punishment imposed without a pre-existing penal law), nulla poena sine lege (no penalty without law) and nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without law). (wikipedia.org)
  • offenses
  • Philippine vessel or airship - Philippine law shall apply to offenses committed in vessels registered with the Philippine Bureau of Customs. (slideshare.net)
  • identifies
  • In short, in a society-oriented framework of criminal law, one identifies first the interest or value that the group wishes to promote, second the most efficient means of effecting promotion of the value, and last the most effective methods of either rehabilitating the offender or segregating him indefinitely from the community. (encyclopedia.com)
  • prohibitions
  • but as prohibitions are not enacted in a vacuum, we can properly look for some evil or injurious or undesirable effect upon the public against which the law is directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Criminals may implant people with microchips or nanomaterials, monitor their brain, alter consciousness and behavior, torture mind and bodies. (blogspot.com)
  • federal
  • It is my view that it has drawn such a distinction in vesting prosecutorial authority in the federal Attorney General under s. 2(2) when it referred to non-Criminal Code offences, leaving the question of penal liability dependent on what is prescribed under such offences. (wikipedia.org)
  • This followed the 1988 decision R. v. Morgentaler, which had struck down the federal abortion law as a breach of section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • morality
  • Public peace, order, security, health, morality: these are the ordinary though not exclusive ends served by that law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the law did not possess any penal consequences required for all valid criminal law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, when law is viewed as a pragmatic effort to cope with contemporary problems, the primary problem is less that of identifying what must be controlled than that of ascertaining the most effective means of achieving control over that minority in the group which does not conform through group pressures or inculcation of group standards. (encyclopedia.com)
  • punishment
  • Every law that changes the punishment, and inflicts a greater punishment, than the law annexed to the crime, when committed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the Armed Career Criminal Act of 1984, a defendant convicted of being a felon in possession of a firearm faces more severe punishment if he has three or more previous convictions for a 'violent felony,' a term defined to include any felony that 'involves conduct that presents a serious potential risk of physical injury to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • general
  • 3. In framing a Constitution for the General Government, the Conference, with a view to the perpetuation of our connection with the Mother Country, and to the promotion of the best interests of the people of these Provinces, desire to follow the model of the British Constitution, so far as our circumstances will permit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, how one views the context of a penal code depends on his view of law in general. (encyclopedia.com)
  • define
  • Ewik and Silbey define Legality more broadly as, those meanings, sources of authority, and cultural practices that are in some sense legal although not necessarily approved or acknowledged by official law. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1949
  • The petitioner was convicted upon information in the Municipal Court of Chicago of violating § 224a of the Illinois Criminal Code, Ill. Rev. Stat., 1949, c. 38, Div. 1, § 471. (bc.edu)
  • enforceable
  • In contract law, legality of purpose is required of every enforceable contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of the philosophical spectrum, however, stand those who maintain that legal norms, including those embodied in the criminal law, are valid only to the degree that they express the generally accepted values in the community and thus are enforceable only for whatever period of time the community's attitudes toward these values remain basically unchanged. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Code
  • The Criminal Code was also amended by inserting s. 498, which created a corresponding offence of combining to limit facilities, restrain commerce, or lessen manufacture or competition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Civil Code of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was passed in 1958 as Law No. 471 and is known in South Korea as one of the three fundamental laws, the other two being Criminal law and constitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The South Korean Civil Code is the largest code among South Korean law. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the period of Japanese rule (1910-1945), Japanese civil code was used, but family law and succession law partially followed Korean customary rules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The South Korean government supplied the draft to the legislature in 1954, which then passed the civil code into law in 1957 after some amendments, mostly relating to the family law. (wikipedia.org)
  • This course is an overview of the Minnesota Criminal Code and Minnesota Traffic Laws. (hennepintech.edu)
  • framework
  • The Quebec Resolutions, also known as the seventy-two resolutions, were a group of statements written at the Quebec Conference of 1864, which laid out the framework for the Canadian Constitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Court
  • The Court rejected Singer's argument that the law restricted mobility as protected under the Charter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Marshall Court (1801-1835) heard forty-one criminal law cases, slightly more than one per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Court observed that the fines were serious penal considerations, a typical feature of criminal law. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Hogg's view, the Court had done this under the doctrine of colourability, which holds that a law designed to look like it was enacted within the powers of the relevant legislative body, but in fact attempting to regulate a matter within another level of government's authority, should be struck down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many found that the Court had overstepped its bounds by focusing too much on the efficiency of the law, which is a matter reserved only for law-makers. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • Freedom of expression is inviolable under the Constitution of Afghanistan , and every Afghan has the right to print or publish topics without prior submission to state authorities in accordance with the law. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the approval of the Telecommunications Services Regulation Act in 2005 (Telecom Law), an independent regulatory agency called the Afghanistan Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRA) was created out of the merger of the Telecommunications Regulatory Board and the State Radio Inspection Department (SRID) under the Ministry of Communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In administrative law it can be seen in the desire for state officials to be bound by and apply the law rather than acting upon whim. (wikipedia.org)
  • THEREFORE
  • Therefore, according to the functional approach, controls in the nature of license revocation, administrative penalties, and, in some instances, preventive detention are usually far more efficient means of control than are criminal penalties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • identities
  • How do our roles and statuses our relationships, our obligations, prerogatives and responsibilities, our identities and our behavoiurs bear the imprint of law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rule
  • It is closely related to legal formalism and the rule of law and can be traced from the writings of Feuerbach, Dicey and Montesquieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rule of law provides for availability of rules, laws and legal mechanism to implement them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congress
  • So, in summary, you're fooling yourself if you think the U.S. Congress doesn't have the authority under the Constitution to provide protective status to a set group of individuals. (alipac.us)
  • Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution gives Congress the authority to pass whatever laws they feel are necessary to run the country. (alipac.us)
  • powers
  • So the Constitution doesn't follow the concept of separation of powers as conceived by major figures of the Enlightenment like Kant and Montesquieu, and incorporates mechanisms to protect the needs of governmental stability while avoiding any degeneration of parliamentarism. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. (alipac.us)