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  • chloroplasts
  • Within the photosynthetic cells of plants the chlorophyll is in the chloroplasts-small, roundish, dense protoplasmic bodies that contain the grana, or disks, where the chlorophyll molecules are located. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae), also have chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis from those of the Viridiplantae and so are different in colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all other groups besides the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red algae are pigmented with chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, like most cyanobacteria, and accumulate starch outside the chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green algae and land plants - together known as Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") or Chloroplastida - are pigmented with chlorophylls a and b, but lack phycobiliproteins, and starch is accumulated inside the chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Zygnematophyceae or, as they used to be called, Conjugatophyceae, generally possess two fairly elaborate chloroplasts in each cell, rather than many discoid ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glaucophytes are of interest to biologists studying the development of chloroplasts because some studies suggest they may be similar to the original algal type that led to green plants and red algae in that they may be basal Archaeplastida. (wikipedia.org)
  • among the algae
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Lobaria pulmonaria is a large epiphytic lichen consisting of an ascomycete fungus and a green algal partner living together in a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium-a symbiosis involving members of three kingdoms of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • thallus
  • A number of steps are required for the development of the vegetative propagules, including the degeneration of the thallus cortex, replication of green algal cells, and entanglement of fungal hyphae with the green algal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • Becker B, Melkonian M (1992) N-linked glycoproteins associated with flagellar scales in a flagellate green alga: characterization of interactions. (springer.com)
  • Algae (green alga) Sphaereocystis sp. (dlr.de)
  • The order Zygnematales comprises the conjugating green algae. (tolweb.org)
  • This order is the largest and most diverse of the living groups of green algae in the Streptophyta. (tolweb.org)
  • The conjugating green algae are among the most common algae in freshwater streams, ponds, and lakes. (tolweb.org)
  • Including such familiar algae as Spirogyra , these algae, unlike most other green algae, lack flagellated cells at any time during the life cycle. (tolweb.org)
  • Bryopsidales is an order of green algae, in the class Bryopsidophyceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other photobiont of L. pulmonaria is the green algae Dictyochloropsis reticulata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consensus in 2005, when the group consisting of the glaucophytes and red and green algae and land plants was named 'Archaeplastida', was that it was a clade, i.e. was monophyletic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some charophyte groups, such as Zygnematophyceae or conjugating green algae, flagella are absent and sexual reproduction does not involve free-swimming flagellate sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophyta are complex green algae that form a sister group to the Chlorophyta and within which the Embryophyta emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the red algae (Rhodophyta) and the green algae plus land plants (Viridiplantae or Chloroplastida), they form the Archaeplastida. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the relationships among the red algae, green algae and glaucophytes are unclear, in large part due to limited study of the glaucophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like red algae, and in contrast to green algae and plants, glaucophytes store fixed carbon in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motile forms have two unequal flagella, which may have fine hairs and are anchored by a multilayered system of microtubules, both of which are similar to forms found in some green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant consists of an erect central axis ("stem") that is commonly forked, but only sparingly, and the plants are bright green. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • The glaucophytes have typical cyanobacterial pigments, and are unusual in retaining a cell wall within their plastids (called cyanelles). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that pseudofungi descend from unicellular heterokont chromist algae which lost their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • While evidence of these plastids hasn't been found, what has been proven is the existence of endosymbiotic red algae plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The extracellular matrix of algal cells, most notably the cell wall, is of fundamental significance to survival and often serves as the major product of photosynthetic carbon fixation. (springer.com)
  • A compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found in plants and used as a food by humans and other animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With carbon dioxide, water, and the help of specialized enzymes , the light energy absorbed creates chemical energy in a form the cell can use to carry on its processes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pigments
  • The prime objective of BIOMEX is to measure to what extent biomolecules like pigments and cell components are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. (dlr.de)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Like a root system in plants, a holdfast serves to anchor the alga in place on the substrate where it grows, and thus prevents the alga from being carried away by the current. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants are able to make their own carbohydrates that they use for energy and to build their cell walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • and pronounced pahl-lee-SAK-uh-rydes), and they form very long molecules that plants use to build their walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Riella plants are small, usually 2 inches (5.1 cm) or less, and thalloid, with an appearance like an immature alga. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chara plants are rough to the touch because of deposited calcium salts on the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • kelps
  • Kelps can range in size from the two-foot-tall sea palm Postelsia to the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, which grows to over 45 m (150 ft) long and is the largest of all the algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists of a main axis (differentiated into nodes and internodes), dimorphic branches (long branch of unlimited growth and short branches of limited growth), rhizoids (multicellular with oblique septa) and stipulodes (needle shaped structures at the base of secondary laterals). (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • As the new cell grows, layer upon layer of new material is deposited inside the last layer, meaning that the oldest material is always on the outside of the plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Animal cells can come in an array of sizes and unusual shapes, unlike a plant cell which is typically rectangular or cube shaped. (majortests.com)
  • Typically, what is the turgor pressure found in bacterial cells? (cueflash.com)
  • The cells of the Archaeplastida typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorophyta
  • Baylson FA, Stevens BW, Domozych DS (2001) Composition and synthesis of the pectin and protein components of the cell wall of Closterium acerosum (Chlorophyta). (springer.com)