• seaweeds
  • Like all seaweeds, the sporophyte stage of Postelsia consists of a thallus, which is made up of a stem-like stipe topped with possibly over 100 leaf-like blades, and rests on a root-like holdfast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flexibility of the cell walls is seen when plants wilt, so that the stems and leaves begin to droop, or in seaweeds that bend in water currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • among the algae
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • algal cells
  • The extracellular matrix of algal cells, most notably the cell wall, is of fundamental significance to survival and often serves as the major product of photosynthetic carbon fixation. (springer.com)
  • A number of steps are required for the development of the vegetative propagules, including the degeneration of the thallus cortex, replication of green algal cells, and entanglement of fungal hyphae with the green algal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When adequate conditions resume, the zygospore will germinate, undergo meiosis, and produce new haploid algal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • Kelps can range in size from the two-foot-tall sea palm Postelsia to the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, which grows to over 45 m (150 ft) long and is the largest of all the algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like a root system in plants, a holdfast serves to anchor the alga in place on the substrate where it grows, and thus prevents the alga from being carried away by the current. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the new cell grows, layer upon layer of new material is deposited inside the last layer, meaning that the oldest material is always on the outside of the plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a Postelsia alga grows, its stipe thickens in the same manner as a tree's trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Lobaria pulmonaria is a large epiphytic lichen consisting of an ascomycete fungus and a green algal partner living together in a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium-a symbiosis involving members of three kingdoms of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosynthetic organisms with plastids of different origin (such as brown algae) do not belong to the Archaeplastida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual reproduction occurs through a process called conjugation whereby two organisms come together and fuse their haploid cells to form a diploid zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • The glaucophytes have typical cyanobacterial pigments, and are unusual in retaining a cell wall within their plastids (called cyanelles). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that pseudofungi descend from unicellular heterokont chromist algae which lost their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • While evidence of these plastids hasn't been found, what has been proven is the existence of endosymbiotic red algae plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • Becker B, Melkonian M (1992) N-linked glycoproteins associated with flagellar scales in a flagellate green alga: characterization of interactions. (springer.com)
  • Algae (green alga) Sphaereocystis sp. (dlr.de)
  • The order Zygnematales comprises the conjugating green algae. (tolweb.org)
  • This order is the largest and most diverse of the living groups of green algae in the Streptophyta. (tolweb.org)
  • Including such familiar algae as Spirogyra , these algae, unlike most other green algae, lack flagellated cells at any time during the life cycle. (tolweb.org)
  • The most significant difference was that members of Bdellovibrio are extracellular parasites, both residing and dividing in the periplasmic space in its host, whereas Vampirovibrio is epibiotic, attaching to the cell wall of green algae in the genus Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterium attaches to the surface of green algae of the genus Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bryopsidales is an order of green algae, in the class Bryopsidophyceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other photobiont of L. pulmonaria is the green algae Dictyochloropsis reticulata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consensus in 2005, when the group consisting of the glaucophytes and red and green algae and land plants was named 'Archaeplastida', was that it was a clade, i.e. was monophyletic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Viridiplantae, the green plants - green algae and land plants - form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some charophyte groups, such as Zygnematophyceae or conjugating green algae, flagella are absent and sexual reproduction does not involve free-swimming flagellate sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophyta are complex green algae that form a sister group to the Chlorophyta and within which the Embryophyta emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the relationships among the red algae, green algae and glaucophytes are unclear, in large part due to limited study of the glaucophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like red algae, and in contrast to green algae and plants, glaucophytes store fixed carbon in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motile forms have two unequal flagella, which may have fine hairs and are anchored by a multilayered system of microtubules, both of which are similar to forms found in some green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant consists of an erect central axis ("stem") that is commonly forked, but only sparingly, and the plants are bright green. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micrasterias is a unicellular green alga of the order Desmidiales. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dual semi-cell structure is unique to the group of green algae to which Micrasterias belongs. (wikipedia.org)
  • diatoms
  • Under some circumstances diatoms will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The diatoms and golden-brown algae are of great importance as components of the plankton and nanoplankton that form the foundation of the marine food chain . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The characteristic feature of diatoms is their intricately patterned, glass-like cell wall, or frustule. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic silica. (wikipedia.org)
  • structurally
  • Although not all brown algae are structurally complex, those that are typically possess one or more characteristic parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most structurally differentiated brown algae (such as Fucus), the tissues within the stipe are divided into three distinct layers or regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthetic
  • There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the brown algae, for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Brown algae are unique among heterokonts in developing into multicellular forms with differentiated tissues, but they reproduce by means of flagellated spores and gametes that closely resemble cells of other heterokonts. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, because some botanists define "true" stems, leaves, and roots by the presence of these tissues, their absence in the brown algae means that the stem-like and leaf-like structures found in some groups of brown algae must be described using different terminology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.11 Sponges are organized at the cellular grade and don't have cells Tissues organized as these. (coursehero.com)
  • The apparent rigidity of primary plant tissues is enabled by cell walls, but is not due to the walls' stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Plants are able to make their own carbohydrates that they use for energy and to build their cell walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • and pronounced pahl-lee-SAK-uh-rydes), and they form very long molecules that plants use to build their walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found in plants and used as a food by humans and other animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pectins are acidic sugar-containing polysaccharides that are universally conserved components of the primary cell walls of plants and modulate both tip and diffuse cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Riella plants are small, usually 2 inches (5.1 cm) or less, and thalloid, with an appearance like an immature alga. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae possess cell walls made of glycoproteins and polysaccharides such as carrageenan and agar that are absent from land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • With carbon dioxide, water, and the help of specialized enzymes , the light energy absorbed creates chemical energy in a form the cell can use to carry on its processes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • agar
  • These load-bearing fibrillar components are inserted in complex networks of polysaccharides that include hemicelluloses and polyanionic polymers such as pectins, alginates, fucoidans and the sulfated galactans of red algae, agar and carageenan. (springer.com)
  • Agar is a hydrophilic colloid extracted from the cell walls of red algae (Rhodophyceae), such as Gelidium spp. (springer.com)
  • pectins
  • The presence of relatively small pectin-related gene families in Physcomitrella as compared to Arabidopsis makes it an attractive target for analysis of the functions of pectins in cell walls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • form
  • Regardless of size or form, two visible features set the Phaeophyceae apart from all other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • They reproduce sexually through several variations of the process known as conjugation, in which haploid vegetative cells come close together and form nonflagellated gametes that fuse to form a zygote. (tolweb.org)
  • When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jelly when boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their composition, properties, and form may change during the cell cycle and depend on growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Often, post-secretory crosslinking with cations alters the structural architecture of these polymers that, in turn, influences the strength and function of the cell wall. (springer.com)
  • A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny
  • 1972). The phylogeny shown here reflects the widely accepted classification of Mix (1972, 1973), who examined vegetative wall structure in detail (see Notes about Terminal Taxa). (tolweb.org)
  • vulgaris
  • We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris , replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum , and replete Nannochloropsis sp. (springer.com)
  • V. chlorellavorus will not grow in axenic cultures, depending on access to living cells of its preferred algae host, Chlorella vulgaris for reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gromov and Mamkaeva first isolated Bdellovibrio chlorellavorus in a lysis experiment with the algae Chlorella vulgaris from Ukrainian reservoir waters from a mass culture of Chlorella Beijer in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Hugenholtz and colleagues from the University of Queensland in Australia, have completed shotgun sequencing of lyophilized cells of V. chlorellavourus strain in culture with Chlorella vulgaris. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerably
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Just as our hard, bony skeletons provide attachment points for our muscles and support our bodies, so the rigidity or stiffness found in any plant is due to the strength of its cell walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The moss Physcomitrella patens is emerging as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell walls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant cell wall was first observed and named (simply as a "wall") by Robert Hooke in 1665. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1930, Ernst Münch coined the term apoplast in order to separate the "living" symplast from the "dead" plant region, the latter of which included the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary cell wall of most plant cells is freely permeable to small molecules including small proteins, with size exclusion estimated to be 30-60 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These long molecules also are formed into a criss-cross mesh that gives strength and shape to the cell wall. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Microbes capable of degrading starch extracellularly to molecules small enough to be taken up by the cell can use the mono or disaccharide products of starch digestion to produce energy (ATP). (openwetware.org)
  • Cell walls also limit the entry of large molecules that may be toxic to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The pH is an important factor governing the transport of molecules through cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • Proteins
  • The cell walls of most algae consist of a framework of fibrillar polysaccharides that are embedded in a matrix composed of neutral and charged polysaccharides along with various proteins, phenolics and complexed cations. (springer.com)