• elastase
  • Purified macrophage elastase degraded glycoprotein and elastin components but had no effect on the collagens. (rupress.org)
  • The rate of elastin degradation by macrophage elastase was decreased in the presence of the glycoproteins. (rupress.org)
  • As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 0.9-2.3 g/L (in the US the reference range is expressed as mg/dL or micromoles), but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or functionally defective A1AT (such as in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is excessively free to break down elastin, degrading the elasticity of the lungs, which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the acute phase reaction, a further elevation is required to "limit" the damage caused by activated neutrophil granulocytes and their enzyme elastase, which breaks down the connective tissue fiber elastin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastase breaks down elastin, an elastic fibre that, together with collagen, determines the mechanical properties of connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastase has been shown to disrupt tight junctions, cause proteolytic damage to tissue, break down cytokines and alpha proteinase inhibitor, cleave immunoglobulin A and G (IgA, IgG), and cleave both C3bi, a component of the complement system, and CR1, a receptor on neutrophils for another complement molecule involved in phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a pliable, mesh-like tissue with a fluid matrix and functions to cushion and protect body organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dense regular connective tissue, which forms organized structures, is a major functional component of tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses, and is also found in highly specialized organs such as the cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrinogen
  • 6. An elastin containing composition according to claim 1, further comprising at least one additive selected from the group consisting of collagen, thiourea, cellulose derivatives, calcium alginate, sodium ethylmercrylthiosalicylate, FVIII complex (antihemophilic A), the latter containing about 10 to 15 g/l of fibrinogen and about 2 to 4 g/l of fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, thrombospondin and laminin. (google.co.uk)
  • collagens
  • Sequential enzyme digestion of residual matrix revealed that plasmin, a product of macrophage plasminogen activation, degraded 50-70% of the glycoprotein in the matrices but did not degrade the elastin or the collagens. (rupress.org)
  • elasticity
  • The majority of these changes are a result of the soft tissues of the face losing its elasticity and volume. (bmc.org)
  • arteries
  • The total elastin ranges from 58 to 75% of the weight of the dry defatted artery in normal canine arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin serves an important function in arteries as a medium for pressure wave propagation to help blood flow and is particularly abundant in large elastic blood vessels such as the aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • These supplies are necessary to carry out such metabolic functions as cellular respiration, melanin pigment and connective tissue synthesis, iron metabolism, free radical defense, gene expression, and the normal functioning of the heart and immune systems in infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • The macrophage cathepsins D and B degraded all the matrix components at an optimum pH of 5.5 and acted with the secreted neutral proteinases to degrade the connective tissue macromolecules to amino acids and oligopeptides. (rupress.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Third degree burns are the most severe because the damage extends past the upper layers of skin to the sensitive subcutaneous tissue, destroying nerves, blood vessels, and other dermal components. (blausen.com)
  • Nearly every epithelium rests on a layer of areolar tissue, whose blood vessels provide the epithelium with nutrition, waste removal, and a ready supply of infection-fighting leukocytes in times of need. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Conditioned medium from resident and inflammatory macrophages, containing mixtures of the secreted proteinases, degraded the glycoprotein and elastin components of the matrices. (rupress.org)
  • Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • histology
  • The terms "collagen diseases" was coined originally to denote a group of disorders which showed common features such as multisystem involvement, fibrinoid degeneration of connective tissue demonstrable on histology and caused by immunological processes. (hubpages.com)
  • bone
  • Any of a family of 30-38-kD homodimeric growth factors involved in bone and cartilage formation, which provide morphogenetic signals that guide normal tissue architecture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla (armpit), and can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle, extending from the lower back to the humerus bone (the longest bone of the upper arm). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Mutations in this gene lead to hyperammonemia, hypoornithinemia, hypocitrullinemia, hypoargininemia and hypoprolinemia and may be associated with neurodegeneration, cataracts and connective tissue diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, elastin is encoded by the ELN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutis laxa and Williams syndrome have elastic matrix defects that have been directly associated with alterations in the elastin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • proline
  • The long version of PC5S is expressed in various tissues and is significant for its ability to synthesize proline from glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin
  • Slackening of the subcutaneous tissues leads to an excess of skin and ptosis and leads to the appearance of drooping cheeks and eye lids. (google.com.au)
  • Facelifting is a surgical procedure designed to lift the tissues that have descended and remove excess fat and skin creating a fresh and more youthful appearance. (bmc.org)
  • Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. (wikipedia.org)