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  • beta blockers
  • As there is a relative paucity in effective pharmacological treatment for portal hypertension, these novel and innovative therapy might provide important alternative or adjunct therapy to beta blockers in the clinical management of patients with portal hypertension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • patients who have received beta blockers for portal hypertension in the past 6 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta blockers cause a decrease in renin secretion, which in turn reduces the heart oxygen demand by lowering extracellular volume and increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • They are also widely used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), although they are no longer the first choice for initial treatment of most patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of darbepoetin alfa is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug, pre-existing uncontrolled hypertension, and pure red cell aplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation of the heart
  • Hydralazine is not used as a primary drug for treating hypertension because it elicits a reflex sympathetic stimulation of the heart (the baroreceptor reflex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bisoprolol competitively blocks the activation of this cascade, so decreases the adrenergic tone/stimulation of the heart muscle and pacemaker cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • The Heart Outcomes and Prevention Evaluation trial seemed to show ramipril possessed cardioprotective qualities which extended beyond its qualities as an antihypertensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Common side effects by mouth include tiredness, slow heart beat, itchiness, and shortness of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common side effects include headache and fast heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very common (>10% frequency) side effects include headache, high heart rate, and palpitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitral valve
  • The mitral valve controls the blood flow from the lungs back into the left side of the heart, to be pumped back out through the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • The Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, commonly known as the Baker Institute, is an Australian independent medical research institute headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • Other than the kidneys, liver and heart are the most commonly involved organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • β1-adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart and in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine (adrenaline). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Bisoprolol, marketed under the tradename Zebeta among others, is a medication most commonly used for heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In this study, the investigators hypothesize that a modification in the composition of the endogenous digestive microflora by oral bacteriotherapy with high potency probiotic preparations could be a safe way to regulate the portal pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • mainly
  • Bisoprolol is cardioprotective because it selectively and competitively blocks catecholamine (adrenalin) stimulation of β1 adrenergic receptors (adrenoreceptors), which are mainly found in the heart muscle cells and heart conduction tissue (cardiospecific), but also found in juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of the drug are limited to areas containing β1 adrenoreceptors, which is mainly the heart and part of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemic heart d
  • Indicate whether the patient has ischemic heart disease Class III or IV based on the New York Heart Association. (cancer.gov)
  • This benefit was strongest for ischemic heart disease, but was also noted for other vascular disease and respiratory disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes
  • The Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, commonly known as the Baker Institute, is an Australian independent medical research institute headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, it became the country's first medical research institute to target diabetes, heart disease, obesity and their complications at the basic, clinical and population health levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic Complications: How to prevent the progression of diabetes to complications affecting arteries, the heart, the kidneys and the eyes? (wikipedia.org)
  • renin
  • Aliskiren is a renin inhibitor, which works to reduce primary hypertension (that with no known cause) by binding to renin and preventing it from initiating the renin-angiotensin system (RAAS) pathway to increase blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • contractility
  • General pharmacological principles of metoprolol:[citation needed] beta-1 selective moderately lipophilic without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity with weak membrane stabilizing activity decreases heart rate, contractility, and cardiac output, therefore decreasing blood pressure Metoprolol blocks β1 adrenergic receptors in heart muscle cells, thereby decreasing the slope of phase 4 in the nodal action potential (reducing Na+ uptake) and prolonging repolarization of phase 3 (slowing down K+ release). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means diltiazem causes a decrease in heart muscle contractility - how strong the beat is, lowering of heart rate - due to slowing of the sinoatrial node, and a slowing of conduction through the atrioventricular node - increasing the time needed for each beat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unstable angina (excluding variant angina), amlodipine can cause a reflex increase in cardiac contractility (how hard the ventricles squeeze) and heart rate, which together increase the demand for oxygen by the heart itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • Glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, bilirubin, triglyceride, tuberculosis smear, and cytological analyses of the fluid are optional and provide important information in the differential diagnosis of ascites in cases where causes other than portal hypertension are considered ( Table 1 ). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • rate
  • Additionally, it lowers blood pressure by acting on the heart itself to reduce the rate, strength, and conduction speed of each beat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous diltiazem should be used with caution with beta-blockers because, while the combination is most potent at reducing heart rate, there are rare instances of dysrhythmia and AV node block. (wikipedia.org)
  • sympathomimetic
  • In the 1950s, dichloroisoproterenol (DCI) was discovered to be a β-antagonist that blocked the effects of sympathomimetic amines on bronchodilation, uterine relaxation and heart stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Most of the research supporting the use of thiazide diuretics in hypertension was done using chlorthalidone, a different medication in the same class. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1948, Raymond P. Ahlquist published a seminal paper concluding his findings, that there were two distinct receptors for catecholamine drugs, and they caused different responses in the heart muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left
  • The mitral valve controls the blood flow from the lungs back into the left side of the heart, to be pumped back out through the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • beat
  • Does your heart skip a beat when you find out a background check will be conducted? (clusopi.com)
  • food
  • Food portal List of pork dishes "But old traditions like pork chops and apple sauce are giving way to the new, mouth-watering flavors of the 90s. (wikipedia.org)