• Saharawi
  • Representatives of the Saharawi people have been consistently outspoken against the trade, both in the UN, generally, and to specific companies. (wesatimes.com)
  • WSRW calls on all companies involved in the trade to immediately halt all purchases of Western Sahara phosphates until a solution to the conflict has been found and the Saharawi people have been assured the exercise of their fundamental right to self-determination. (wesatimes.com)
  • Furthermore, it is unethical because the trade gives support to a brutal regime and it is unjust because the indigenous people of Western Sahara, the Saharawi people, neither consent to nor benefit from the trade in their own natural resources. (awsa.org.au)
  • The plunder denies Saharawi future generations of a vital resource that would enable them to rebuild their nation and sustain a dignified life in their homeland after great sufferings due to the long conflict. (awsa.org.au)
  • On June 15, the Court determined that the claim should proceed to a full trial, noting that the Saharawi government had prima facie ownership of the cargo. (awsa.org.au)
  • The UN has concluded that any exploitation of resources in Western Sahara would be illegal if the Saharawi people do not consent to it. (awsa.org.au)
  • The trial of the Saharawi political prisoners of the Gdeim Izik group opened before the Court of Appeal in Salé - Morocco. (awsa.org.au)
  • The Government of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is pleased to announce that it has awarded the Bir Lahlou Block to the UK-based Red Rio Petroleum Limited ("Contractor"), effective from 18 March 2014. (awsa.org.au)
  • In this regard, the Saharawi flag was raised on Balmain Town Hall (New South Wales), Fremantle Town Hall (Western Australia), Moreland City Council (Victoria), Yarra City Council (Victoria), Ballarat Trades Hall (Victoria), Geelong Trades Hall (Victoria) and Victorian Australian Workers Union (Melbourne office). (awsa.org.au)
  • protests
  • Saharawis living in occupied Western Sahara hold regular protests about the plunder of their land. (awsa.org.au)
  • The first clear government response to the protests was a proposal for a new education fund and a cabinet shuffle which replaced Minister of Education Joaquín Lavín and was seen as not fundamentally addressing student movement concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many newspapers and analysts have traced the protests back to the 2006 Penguin Revolution that occurred during the government of Michelle Bachelet , some claiming that these are the same secondary students who headed the 2006 movement that when in university are heading the 2011 student protests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The international reactions to the Libyan Civil War were the responses to the series of protests and military confrontations occurring in Libya against the government of Libya and its de facto head of state Muammar Gaddafi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michael Weiss, a spokesperson for Just Journalism, claimed that he had received leaked Syrian state documents showing that the Syrian government organized the Nakba Day protests to draw attention away from the uprising in Syria proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • US State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U.S. believes President Bashar Assad's government was actively supporting the Palestinian protests near the Israeli border. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15th century
  • From the 8th through the 15th century, black kingdoms of the western Sudan, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, brought their political culture from the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Portuguese established the first firm post-Middle Ages European settlements, trade posts, permanent fortifications and ports of call along the coast of the African continent, from the beginning of the Age of Discovery during the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Morocco - sovereign country located in western North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • 70.5 KB) Moroccousafta a site about the Morocco/US Free Trade Agreement Surveys and Studies Human Rights Watch on Morocco "Genetic structure of north-west Africa" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Islam became so prominent in North and West Africa, many of the trade routes and caravan networks were controlled by Muslim nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania thus became part of French West Africa in 1904, but colonial control was mostly limited to the coast and the Saharan trade routes, and there were territories nominally within French West Africa which were not reached by European control as late as 1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the scramble for Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873-96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known example of a fossil human skeleton found anywhere in West Africa, which is 13,000 years old, was found at Iwo-Eleru in western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information is lacking from the first millennium AD following the Nok ascendancy, but by the 2nd millennium there was active trade from North Africa through the Sahara to the forest, with the people of the savanna acting as intermediaries in exchanges of various goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is in both China and Africa's interests that high governance standards are part of the aid, trade and investment portfolio of China in Africa, positively influencing China's footprint in the continent. (africanarguments.org)
  • right of self-deter
  • The SADR government recognizes the withdrawal of what would have been an untenable defence as a helpful step, both for ensuring clarity of what the High Court has determined on abundant evidence and as a contribution to the application of the rule of law in the continuing occupation of Western Sahara and a denial to its people of the right of self-determination. (awsa.org.au)
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco has international borders with Algeria to the east, Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with two small Spanish autonomous cities, Ceuta and Melilla), and a disputed border with Mauritania to the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company holds production and development operations offshore Ghana, in addition to discoveries and further exploration operations offshore Mauritania and Senegal, and exploration licenses offshore Sao Tome and Principe, Morocco and Western Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th and 8th centuries did not reach as far south, and Islam came to Mauritania only gradually, from about the 11th century, in the context of the wider Islamization of the Sudan and medieval Arab slave trade. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the 15th to the 19th century, European contact with Mauritania was dominated by the trade for gum arabic. (wikipedia.org)
  • caravan
  • Beginning slowly through contacts with Berber and Arab merchants engaged in the important caravan trades and rapidly advancing through the Almoravid conquests, Islamization did not take firm hold until the arrival of Yemeni Arabs in the 12th and 13th centuries and was not complete until several centuries later. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can purchase crafts in markets, venture into the Sahara with a Tuareg caravan, visit pygmy villages, hike through jungle to watch gorillas, relax on tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, snack on exotic treats, travel down a river in a dugout "pirogue", travel across savanna on a colonial-era railway, and much more. (wikitravel.org)
  • As African migrants head toward the Mediterranean, they unwittingly follow the ancient caravan routes of the trans-Saharan slave trade. (newyorker.com)
  • Algeria
  • The new negotiations will include talks regarding European investment, agriculture, fisheries, and the accession of Algeria to the World Trade Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Libya
  • These factors, along with Kufra's dominance of the southeastern Cyrenaica region of Libya, highlight the strategic importance of the oasis and why it was a point of conflict during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • slaves
  • and the role of various individuals and groups-including merchants, planters, bureaucrats, and colonial, national, and imperial governments, and slaves themselves-in retarding or accelerating the process. (blogspot.com)
  • The U.S. government passed less sweeping legislation in 1808 banning further import of slaves. (blogspot.com)
  • routes
  • This led to an increase in the need and use for trade routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the 14th century, much of African trade revolved around the Trans-Saharan trade routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout his travels, he described many aspects of the Trans-Saharan trade routes that he encountered on his journey to Mali. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trade routes from Sijilmasa to Walata passed through the salt mines of Taghaza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The routes from Morocco to Egypt were large distribution centers for gold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his memoirs, Battuta also described the dangers of the trade routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mali's most famous ruler, Mansa Musa, traveled across the Trans-Saharan trade routes on his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1325. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 14th century, prominent trade and travel routes had been firmly established. (wikipedia.org)
  • These powerful empires would extend their hand of power over African trade by directing trade routes through the major cities and taxing the traveling merchants and their goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the power of the empires, many of the trade routes were secured and the merchant profession became a prosperous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along the trade routes, local or residential tribes would establish and maintain resting posts for the traveling merchants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scouts often used these trading posts to guide the caravans along the correct trade routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now that the old slave routes are ungovernable and awash in weapons, tens of thousands of human beings who set out voluntarily find themselves trafficked, traded between owners, and forced to work as laborers or prostitutes. (newyorker.com)
  • Zealand
  • In progressing plans to submit a new application we are working with government officials to seek improvement in the permitting process and iwi, academic, industry and central government input to ensure New Zealand can benefit from an environmentally superior phosphate source. (rockphosphate.co.nz)
  • people
  • A Kosmos official told Reuters, "If we are successful, we believe responsible resource development has the potential to create significant social and economic benefits for Western Sahara and its people. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2016, the Financial Times quoted Kosmos correspondence with the Council on Ethics: "We fundamentally disagree with the council's assessment of our activities offshore Western Sahara, where we have spent considerable time on the ground working with local people to understand their views of oil and gas exploration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The council's decision fails to recognize that people in Western Sahara-whom we have met in hundreds of face-to-face conversations-want the economic opportunities that come from increased foreign investment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UN has in place a mission, MINURSO, charged with the responsibility of organizing the referendum on self-determination for the people of the Western Sahara. (awsa.org.au)
  • The human cost since fighting resumed is impossible to determine with precision, but the United Nations estimates that nearly one million people have become internally displaced persons because of the renewed conflict, 10 percent of Angola's population. (africafocus.org)
  • The government estimates that the current unemployment figures to be are around 25 percent, i.e. counting people who are unemployed but are still looking for jobs. (africanarguments.org)
  • In the face of such disparities the government has turned to an ever-burgeoning "social grant" system currently supporting more than 14 million people. (africanarguments.org)
  • In the Albertine Basin in Uganda (already flagged up by the World Resources Institute as an area of potential conflict for water and fishing resources) the media talk is on Tullow Oil's success at renegotiating access, not of the Ugandan government's alleged displacement of the Acholi people there . (africanarguments.org)
  • settlements
  • Spanish prehistory extends to the pre-Roman Iron Age cultures that controlled most of Iberia: those of the Iberians, Celtiberians, Tartessians, Lusitanians, and Vascones and trading settlements of Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks on the Mediterranean coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • diplomatic
  • Re: A protestletterconcerning the visit of the diplomatic delegations to someoccupiedterritories of Western Sahara. (wesatimes.com)
  • Virtually all Western countries cut off diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's government over an aerial bombing campaign in February and March, and a number of other countries led by Peru and Botswana did likewise. (wikipedia.org)
  • independence
  • The Lusaka Protocol was signed at a moment when the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) rebels were in a weakened position and wanted to stop its territorial loses to the government. (africafocus.org)
  • Egypt
  • In the weeks following the uprisings that brought about regime change in Tunisia and Egypt several local social commentators predicted that in the not too distant future the South African government might face similar expressions of popular disenchantment. (africanarguments.org)
  • halt
  • As a backdrop to the protocol, a Security Council embargo on arms and oil transfers to UNITA had been in place since 1993, while both the government and UNITA had agreed to halt new arms acquisitions as part of the accords. (africafocus.org)
  • importation
  • Though the Treatment Action Campaign openly clashed with the government led by then ANC President, Thabo Mbeki, and adopted a number of activist strategies including illegal importation of ARV's, occupying government offices, or calling for the arrest of the ministers of trade and industry as well as health, nonetheless Achmat was still very much ANC. (africafocus.org)
  • Ghana
  • Kosmos was the focus of a documentary Big Men that followed the company as it worked to establish the Jubilee oil field in Ghana. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company and its operations in Ghana, around the time of the Jubilee discovery and work to develop the field, was the focus of Rachel Boynton's 2013 documentary-film Big Men. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 10th-15th centuries the major empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay influenced many of the trade practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reform
  • 108 KB) revealed by STR analysis "Arab Reform and Foreign Aid - Lessons from Morocco" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • They also rejected a no-fly zone and any intervention by Western powers, but supported an "African solution" of reform. (wikipedia.org)
  • exploration
  • Substantial deposits of iron ore have been found and exploration for oil and gas has brought some success and is continuing, particularly in the off-shore areas of Western Sahara. (awsa.org.au)
  • Local media bulges with Spartan press releases parroting obscure rhetoric more suited to the oil and gas exploration trade press. (africanarguments.org)
  • Representatives
  • A joint commission, comprised of the U.N., government and UNITA representatives, with the U.S., Portugal and Russia as observers (known as the Troika), oversaw the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. (africafocus.org)
  • made
  • University students are represented by CONFECH, the Confederation of Chilean Student Federations , a national body made up of student governments at Chilean universities and led by Camila Vallejo of the University of Chile and Giorgio Jackson of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three years later, the British parliament made participation in the slave trade a felony. (blogspot.com)
  • Ironically, while the 1807 law made Britain the first nation to outlaw the transatlantic slave trade, from the mid-1600s leading British economic interests had also been one of the main motors behind, and beneficiaries of, the slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • parts
  • It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • They complained that they were being treated as second-class citizens in their own country, while Morocco exploited their natural resources for its profit. (awsa.org.au)
  • Sid Ahmed Lamjayed is the president of the CSPRON The committee to support the peace settlement and to protect the natural resources in Western Sahara. (awsa.org.au)
  • North
  • It's impossible to count the lorries laden with octopus and fish streaming north on the main road between El Aaiun, the major city in the north of Western Sahara, and Dakhla, 500 km south. (awsa.org.au)
  • As individual states were passing laws for gradual emancipation, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 banned slavery in the Northwest Territories, setting the stage for the sectional conflict between North and South that ultimately led to the American Civil War . (blogspot.com)
  • African
  • Morocco is an African country currently a member of the African Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 12th through the 16th centuries were known as the "golden age" of trade, when West African gold was in high demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • While trade along the Trans-Sahara trade route was common in the 14th century, it was highly dependent on the powerful African Empires, such as the Mali Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Benin Kingdom, Hausa City-states, Great Zimbabwe, Ethiopian Empire, Kilwa Sultanat, and the Ajuran Sultanate. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of the 10th century, Islam had spread to many of the Northern and Western African empires. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many members of the international community, including the United Nations, the Arab League, and the African Union, explicitly recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative, with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Union - The Chairman of the African Union Commission Jean Ping said the AU was in contact with the Libyan government and that it condemned the crackdown against protesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the companies involved in tropical African commerce were relatively small, apart from Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Mining Company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ask any South African to name his or her main social concerns and it would be no surprise if poverty, unemployment and job creation, service delivery, crime and graft (at all levels of government) top their lists. (africanarguments.org)
  • long
  • Historian Gabriel Salazar describes the student conflict as being the continuation of a long strife between popular citizen movements and civic and military dictatorships . (wikipedia.org)
  • state owned c
  • Such statements are contemptible and unworthy of a state owned company that otherwise seeks the protection of the law in its commercial dealings. (awsa.org.au)