• interactions
  • excessive citations] The complex nature of chemical interactions in flare, flash, and other production vapors have spawned many efforts to describe and control how these hydrocarbons interact with other materials in the atmosphere to create air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • To produce the short-lived reaction intermediates from the serotonin and hydroxytryptophan, Shear and Plenert hit the mixture with a microsecond blast of laser light when the solution passes through the capillary s hourglass section. (innovations-report.com)
  • refinery
  • Electrical equipment intended for use in a chemical factory or refinery either is designed to contain any explosion within the device or is designed not to produce sparks with sufficient energy to trigger an explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantities
  • Because dioxins and DLCs act similarly at the AhR, their individual quantities in a mixture can be added together as proportional values, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • In electrical engineering, hazardous locations (sometimes abbreviated to HazLoc, pronounced Haz·Lōk) are defined as places where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases, flammable liquid-produced vapors, combustible liquid-produced vapors, combustible dusts, or ignitable fibers/flyings present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • A dose-additive response occurs when the mixture effect is determined by the sum of the component chemical doses, each weighted by its relative toxic potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of lipofuscin is best characterized in the RPE, 12 where its accumulation is thought to depend on the availability of all- trans retinal, a potentially highly toxic allelic aldehyde, produced in the photoreceptor outer segments on light exposure. (arvojournals.org)
  • structures
  • The approach, reported here today (March 17, 2005) at a meeting of the American Chemical Society, suggests that microbes can serve as forms for complicated nanoscale structures, perhaps obviating, in part, the need for the tedious and time-consuming construction of devices at the smallest scale. (nanotech-now.com)
  • In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. (jove.com)
  • metabolic
  • In addition, the metabolic profile of an individual at baseline (metabotype) provides information about how individuals respond to treatment and highlights heterogeneity within a disease state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacometabolomic analyses, through the use of a metabolomics approach, can provide a comprehensive and detailed metabolic profile or "metabolic fingerprint" for an individual patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such metabolic profiles can provide a complete overview of individual metabolite or pathway alterations, providing a more realistic depiction of disease phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite
  • Despite its value and use, many of the components that make up NGL and LPG become considered "waste gas" during production and are flared on-site or vented into the atmosphere as flash gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Currently, sample purification processes, such as liquid or gas chromatography, are coupled with either mass spectrometry (MS)-based or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analytical methods to characterize the metabolite profiles of individual patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. (sae.org)
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • The name derives from the Ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid (phenyl) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ratio
  • Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. (sae.org)
  • food
  • On 23 January 2007, the Human Metabolome Project, led by Dr. David Wishart of the University of Alberta, Canada, completed the first draft of the human metabolome, consisting of a database of approximately 2500 metabolites, 1200 drugs and 3500 food components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercially practical cellulosic alcohol could also avoid one of the problems with today's conventional (grain-based) biofuels, which is that they set up competition for grain with food purposes, potentially driving up the price of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • A risk-additive response occurs when the mixture response is the sum of component risks, based on the probability law of independent events. (wikipedia.org)
  • An effect-additive mixture response occurs when the combined effect of exposure a chemical mixture is equal to the sums of the separate component chemical effects, e.g., incremental changes in relative liver weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the goal of pharmacometabolomics is to more closely predict or assess the response of an individual to a pharmaceutical compound, permitting continued treatment with the right drug or dosage depending on the variations in their metabolism and ability to respond to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. (sae.org)
  • systems
  • One of the great challenges of nanotechnology remains the assembly of nanoscale objects into more complex systems," says Robert Hamers, a UW-Madison professor of chemistry and the senior author of the new reports. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Such solid-state components have found widespread use for various applications in the electro-optical field including: optical fibres for guided lightwave transmission, optical switches, laser amplifiers and lenses, hosts for solid-state lasers and optical window materials for gas lasers, and infrared (IR) heat seeking devices for missile guidance systems and IR night vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasingly, the exchanges of data in complex ECM (Electronic Control Module) systems rely on multiple communication networks across various physical and network layers. (sae.org)
  • Many current ECM systems utilize complex multi-network communication strategies to exchange and control data to components. (sae.org)
  • various
  • The chemicals are separated over a distance of about 10 micrometers (about one tenth the width of a human hair), with smaller, more positively charged pieces moving at faster rates than the larger, more negatively charged ones, thereby isolating the various components. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our LANIS lanolins and its various derivatives - complex blends of alcoholic and acidic fatty esters - have an unmatched performance and safety record in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. (imperialoel.com)
  • approach
  • The TEF approach uses an underlying assumption of additivity associated with these chemicals that takes into account chemical structure and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat
  • However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. (sae.org)
  • The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. (sae.org)
  • important
  • Additivity is an important concept here because the TEF method operates under the assumption that the assessed contaminants are dose-additive in mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid
  • Flashing, or flash evaporation, is the term that describes this process of volatile components suddenly vaporizing from their liquid state. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • For each chemical the model uses comparative measures from individual toxicity assays, known as relative effect potency (REP), to assign a single scaling factor known as the TEF. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest reef system, stretching along the East coast of Australia from the northern tip down to the town of Bundaberg, is composed of roughly 2,900 individual reefs and 940 islands and cays that stretch for 2,300 kilometres (1,616 mi) and cover an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • management
  • This map of pH on the Great Barrier Reef presents the exposure to ocean acidification on each of the 3,581 reefs, providing managers with the information they need to tailor management to individual reefs. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • In addition, amyloid deposited in patient tissues contains nonproteinaceous components, such as nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (jove.com)
  • higher
  • Although the flashed portion will be primarily components with higher volatilities (lighter HC), heavier HC will also flash into the vapor phase to some extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. (sae.org)
  • easily
  • Moreover, the ability to routinely and easily capture and analyze individual microbes will have implications for conventional biotechnology as well. (nanotech-now.com)