• bacteria
  • Bacteria, however, do possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles enclosed in protein shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction of bacterial genes by bacteriophage appears to reflect an occasional error during intracellular assembly of virus particles, rather than an adaptation of the host bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths ( i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. (jove.com)
  • Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes 21 , 24 . (jove.com)
  • What would remain would be a ghostly image, the skin outlined by a shimmer of bacteria, fungi, round worms, pinworms and various other microbial inhabitants. (culanth.org)
  • gene
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike transduction and conjugation, transformation is clearly a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer, because it depends on numerous bacterial gene products that specifically interact to perform this complex process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian cells stably expressing the full bacterial bioluminescence ( luxCDABEfrp ) gene cassette autonomously produce an optical signal that peaks at 490 nm without the addition of an expensive and possibly interfering luciferin substrate, excitation by an external energy source, or destruction of the sample that is traditionally performed during optical imaging procedures. (jove.com)
  • hosts
  • In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. (jove.com)
  • Viral lysis of microbial hosts releases organic matter that can then be assimilated by nontargeted microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • have demonstrated that the lysis of hosts by viruses releases cellular material (including carbon and nutrients) back into the microbial loop. (nature.com)
  • complex
  • Analyses reveal that the addition of a virus component promotes the emergence of complex communities. (nature.com)
  • In general, biofilms develop from initial microbial attachment on a surface followed by formation of cell clusters (or microcolonies) and further development and stabilization of the microcolonies, which occur in a complex extracellular matrix. (jove.com)
  • The evolution of plants has resulted in widely varying levels of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through bryophytes, lycopods, and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Bernard's milieu intérieure (internal environment) as a prerequisite of life itself and Virchow's cellular ability to preserve the identity against external attacks represent two examples of an auroral phase in which the dichotomy between the organisms' individuality and their environment began to be introduced in the biological thought. (blogspot.com)
  • dynamic
  • 1 , 2 On the other hand, in large communities of interacting units, a variety of dynamic patterns may occur which may hardly be regarded as a progress towards more orderly behavior, let alone any sort of perfection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • systems
  • 3 Complexity of the phenomena frequently occurring in even comparatively simple systems, intricate dependencies on system's and environmental parameters require formulation of the problem in well-defined, self-consistent mathematical terms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17 , 18 , and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22 , 25-27 and individual nematode dissection 28 , 29 . (jove.com)
  • Play
  • Play media Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • basis
  • The GCT and SOC, separately or in combination, provide a conceptual basis for understanding the phenomena of self-organization occurring in large communities without involvement of a supervisory authority, without system-wide informational infrastructure, and without mapping of general plan of action onto cognitive/behavioral faculties of its individual members. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • range
  • In this work, an attempt is made to outline general guiding principles in exploration of a wide range of seemingly dissimilar phenomena observed in large communities of individuals devoid of any personal intelligence and interacting with each other through simple stimulus-response rules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • method
  • We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. (jove.com)
  • time
  • It could be that atmospheric 'poisoning' prevented eukaryotes from colonising the land prior to this, or it could simply have taken a great time for the necessary complexity to evolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Here, we describe an approach that helps to interrogate the role of different genetic factors that putatively underlie the phenomenon of sperm competitive ability in D. melanogaster . (jove.com)