• bacteria
  • Bacteria, however, do possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles enclosed in protein shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction of bacterial genes by bacteriophage appears to reflect an occasional error during intracellular assembly of virus particles, rather than an adaptation of the host bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths ( i.e. green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. (jove.com)
  • Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes 21 , 24 . (jove.com)
  • What would remain would be a ghostly image, the skin outlined by a shimmer of bacteria, fungi, round worms, pinworms and various other microbial inhabitants. (culanth.org)
  • hosts
  • In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. (jove.com)
  • Viral lysis of microbial hosts releases organic matter that can then be assimilated by nontargeted microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • have demonstrated that the lysis of hosts by viruses releases cellular material (including carbon and nutrients) back into the microbial loop. (nature.com)
  • abundance
  • Using a global-scale compilation of microbial and macrobial data, we uncover relationships of commonness and rarity that scale with abundance at similar rates for microorganisms and macroscopic plants and animals. (pnas.org)
  • life
  • In the Darwinian view of evolution, the phenomenon of life is painted in dramatic colors of struggle for survival encompassing all the levels of organic existence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vernadsky thought of life as an impure, colloidal form of water. (culanth.org)
  • High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics have expanded the catalog of microbial taxa by orders of magnitude, whereas the unearthing of new phyla is reshaping the tree of life ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • time
  • At the same time, the study of microbial ecology has yet to uncover quantitative relationships that predict diversity, commonness, and rarity at the scale of host microbiomes and beyond. (pnas.org)
  • It could be that atmospheric 'poisoning' prevented eukaryotes from colonising the land prior to this, or it could simply have taken a great time for the necessary complexity to evolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Conjugation in the well-studied E. coli system is controlled by plasmid genes, and is an adaptation for distributing copies of a plasmid from one bacterial host to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infrequently during this process, a plasmid may integrate into the host bacterial chromosome, and subsequently transfer part of the host bacterial DNA to another bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid mediated transfer of host bacterial DNA (conjugation) also appears to be an accidental process rather than a bacterial adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. (jove.com)
  • study
  • This lack of synthesis has also resulted in the independent study of two phenomena that likely represent a single universal pattern. (pnas.org)
  • systems
  • 3 Complexity of the phenomena frequently occurring in even comparatively simple systems, intricate dependencies on system's and environmental parameters require formulation of the problem in well-defined, self-consistent mathematical terms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17 , 18 , and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22 , 25-27 and individual nematode dissection 28 , 29 . (jove.com)
  • Play
  • Play media Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level (e.g., cells) to a planetary scale (e.g., biosphere) phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • basis
  • The GCT and SOC, separately or in combination, provide a conceptual basis for understanding the phenomena of self-organization occurring in large communities without involvement of a supervisory authority, without system-wide informational infrastructure, and without mapping of general plan of action onto cognitive/behavioral faculties of its individual members. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • dynamic
  • 1 , 2 On the other hand, in large communities of interacting units, a variety of dynamic patterns may occur which may hardly be regarded as a progress towards more orderly behavior, let alone any sort of perfection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • range
  • In this work, an attempt is made to outline general guiding principles in exploration of a wide range of seemingly dissimilar phenomena observed in large communities of individuals devoid of any personal intelligence and interacting with each other through simple stimulus-response rules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • factors
  • Here, we describe an approach that helps to interrogate the role of different genetic factors that putatively underlie the phenomenon of sperm competitive ability in D. melanogaster . (jove.com)
  • universal
  • Another cluster of universal laws governing the self-organization in large communities of locally interacting individuals is built around the principle of self-organized criticality (SOC). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)