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  • protein
  • Making use of a protein found in animals which has evolved to selectively bind metabolites, an assay was developed which better classified samples compared to current methods used in the field of metabolomics. (montana.edu)
  • Methods -A Western blot assay was conducted to detect serum antibodies against the cytotoxin using recombinant cytotoxin (VacA protein) as an antigen. (bmj.com)
  • In order to assess the serum antivacuolating cytotoxin antibody which is thought to indicate infection with cytotoxin positive H pylori strains, we have cloned the vacA gene, purified the recombinant cytotoxin protein expressed in Escherichia coli , and conducted a western blot assay to detect the antibody against the toxin in patients with and without various gastrointestinal diseases. (bmj.com)
  • So they started to develop a biomolecule toolkit for the storage and search of biological entities such as peptides, proteins, protein complexes or bioconjugates. (chemaxon.com)
  • In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus , cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. (asm.org)
  • Using in vivo and in vitro analyses of dynamic polar protein complex formation, we show that a polymeric cell polarity protein, SpmX, serves as a direct bridge between the PopZ polymeric network and the cell fate-directing DivJ histidine kinase. (asm.org)
  • By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment. (asm.org)
  • As a discipline, proteomics has moved past rapid protein identification and has developed into a biological assay for quantitative analysis of complex protein samples by comparing protein changes in differently perturbed systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolate the DNA bound protein by EMSA: the DNA bound protein, migrated in acrylamide gel, is isolated by autoradiography as per an Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein bound DNA was detected by autoradiography, and the bands representing protein-DNA complexes were excised from the gel and the eluted DNA were amplified by PCR using primers complementary to the 20 bp nonrandom flanking sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intrinsic binding affinity of the Strep-tag towards Strep-Tactin results in a highly specific interaction, which enables the isolation and purification of sensitive proteins in a native state as wells as intact protein complexes, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of non-magnetic soluble protein complexes generated by multimerization of αCD3- and αCD28 Fab-Streps with a Strep-Tactin multimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probably it functions as a mediator of solubility for hydrophobic sHsps and it stabilizes the protein and protein/substrate complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro it acts as an ATP-independent chaperone by inhibiting protein aggregation and by stabilizing partially denatured proteins, which ensures refolding by the Hsp70-complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagents
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Since the relatively few microRNAs in the genome are thought to directly regulate a large portion of the proteome, miRNAome screening, coupled with the identification of the regulated proteins, might be a powerful new approach to gaining insight into complex biological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The relative copy numbers of these proteins are essential for complex formation, as overexpression of SpmX in Caulobacter reorganizes the polarity of the cell, generating ectopic cell poles containing PopZ and DivJ. (asm.org)
  • quantitative
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds
  • Finally, hits also regularly originate from en-masse testing of chemical compounds against biological targets, where the compounds may be from novel synthetic chemical libraries known to have particular properties (kinase inhibitory activity, diversity or drug-likeness, etc.), or from historic chemical compound collections or libraries created through combinatorial chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Key to this service is the ability for TTP's team to understand the fundamental steps required to convert lab-based biological processes (for example, sample preparation, labelling and assay measurement) to a functional low-cost disposable and small instrument. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to microtubules, Dr. Nogales explores the structural and functional aspects of large macromolecular assemblies such as eukaryotic transcription and translation initiation complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • The report covers biological products in development, biological products in clinical trials, and currently marketed and late-stage development biologic cancer products. (bccresearch.com)
  • The new service provides an accessible and rapid route to market, offering a seamless approach for companies looking to accelerate the development of their assay to a product for use in diagnostics or research. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We're confident that this service and related TTP platforms will prove attractive to assay and instrument providers in this emerging market, by providing an accelerated route to manufacture that is augmented by our expertise in product development, engineering and the underlying biology of assay design and development. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • While a number of approaches toward the identification and development of hits exist, the most successful techniques are based on chemical and biological intuition developed in team environments through years of rigorous practice aimed solely at discovering new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theoretical biology focuses more on the development of theoretical principles for biology while mathematical biology focuses on the use of mathematical tools to study biological systems, even though the two terms are sometimes interchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • The underlying anti-influenza virus mechanism of SJS was studied by a series of biological assays to determine if hemagglutinin, ribonucleoprotein complex or neuraminidase were targets of SJS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This allows for straightforward construction of complex polyaryl systems, an attractive method for library synthesis of drug targets containing functionalized pyridine moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, hits also routinely originate from structural observations of small molecule "fragments" bound to therapeutic targets (enzymes, receptors, etc.), where the fragments serve as starting points to develop more chemically complex forms by synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedure
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell-based
  • With the advent of whole genome libraries of miRNA mimics suitable for high throughput screening, it is possible to comprehensively evaluate the function of each member of the miRNAome in cell-based assays. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods
  • This includes technologies that provide benefits for a number of assay steps, including biological and cellular deposition, methods for the rapid lysing of high sample volumes, high speed thermocycling, optical and electronic detection systems, and unique low profile and non- pulsatile pumps for highly controlled liquid movement. (technologynetworks.com)
  • processes
  • For example, one platform enables open-access biology and liquid handling for 30 µL to 2 mL volumes, while another is purpose-built for dealing with complex processes such as small liquid volumes in the range of 10 µL to 200 µL whilst maintaining a low disposable cost. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using techniques and tools of applied mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Users of the Desktop Biology service will have the opportunity to benefit from TTP's in-house platforms and technologies, that have been designed to translate complex biological assays into low-cost, disposable consumables. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Desktop Biology customers will also have access to TTP's novel IP that has been especially developed to address some of the key challenges in the biological arena. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field is sometimes called mathematical biology or biomathematics to stress the mathematical side, or theoretical biology to stress the biological side. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • To address this problem we have developed a series of robust, self-assembled gallium/lanthanide metallacrown complexes that show exceptional luminescence properties in the visible and near-infrared regions with many options for multiplex analysis. (umich.edu)
  • laboratory
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • steps
  • The information communication (e.g. request to perform an assay and further information processing) or specimen handling (e.g. collection, transport and processing) that are done until the beginning of an assay are the preanalytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, after the assay, the result may be documented, verified and transmitted/communicated in steps that are called post-analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. not only analytic variations and errors intrinsic to the assay itself but also variations and errors involved in preanalytic and post analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Antibodies in human sera against the vacuolating cytotoxin have often been assessed by using the neutralising assay. (bmj.com)
  • scale
  • The methodology of the neutralising assay, however, is too complicated for large scale analysis. (bmj.com)
  • technology
  • Using our metallacrown antennae technology, the highest quantum efficiencies ever reported for a solid-state Yb 3+ or Er 3+ complex were achieved and excellent photophysical data were reported for several other lanthanides. (umich.edu)
  • One approach is to use high throughput biological screening technology to probe the nodes and networks, providing experimental validation of the computationally determined networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • large
  • By combining the power of random-sequence selection with pooled sequencing, the SAAB imprint assay makes possible simultaneous screening of a large number of binding site mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Vishal Sanchania, one of the leading authors from the London Centre for Nanotechnology, commented With the advent of spinostics we envisage the generation of a vast library of ESR in vitro diagnostics (IVD) assays, with great future promise for immunoassays. (nanowerk.com)
  • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) refers to the qualitative or quantitative transposition of experimental results or observations made in vitro to predicts phenomena in vivo, biological organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results obtained from in vitro experiments cannot often be directly applied to predict biological responses of organisms to chemical exposure in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Using mathematical modeling to numerically simulate the behavior of a complex system, whereby in vitro data provides the parameter values for developing a model. (wikipedia.org)
  • To comply with push for the development of alternative testing methods, increasingly sophisticated in vitro experiments are now collecting numerous, complex, and challenging data that can be integrated into mathematical models. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Since biological perturbation depends on concentration of the toxicant as well as exposure duration of a candidate drug (parent molecule or metabolites) at that target site, in vivo tissue and organ effects can either be completely different or similar to those observed in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Biomarkers are biological molecules found in blood or other body tissues that are a sign or signature of a disease or condition. (nanowerk.com)
  • The formation of the complex stabilises the negatively charged anionic form of the dye producing the blue colour, even under acid conditions when most of the molecules in solution are in the cationic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular composition of the human telomerase enzyme complex was determined by Dr Scott Cohen and his team at the Children's Medical Research Institute (Sydney Australia) and consists of two molecules each of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA (TR or TERC), and dyskerin (DKC1). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • This study shows that there is broad potential for antibody-based in-solution diagnostic methods using ESR or spinostics and that this technology offers a platform for the development of new tools to study biological systems and for application in diagnostics and biotechnology. (nanowerk.com)
  • samples
  • One of the advantages of this technique was that the researchers were able to measure CEA concentrations in complex media, such as whole human blood without the need to pre-treat the blood samples e.g. remove the red blood cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Higher density microplates (384- or 1536-well microplates) are typically used for screening applications, when throughput (number of samples per day processed) and assay cost per sample become critical parameters, with a typical assay volume between 5 and 50 µL per well. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Analogously, for other types of assays, the rows of the matrix might correspond e.g., to binding regions (with ChIP-Seq) or peptide sequences (with quantitative mass spectrometry). (bioconductor.org)
  • critical
  • The trinuclear Mg2+ complex is critical for binding DMAPP and stabilizing the pyrophosphate leaving group while the growing hydrocarbon tail wedges into a deep hydrophobic pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • The complex formed between the antibody fragment with the label (green and yellow) and the antigen (blue wire frame). (nanowerk.com)