• toxins
  • The neurotoxin belongs to a family of toxins found within 3 different sea anemones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the short and well-studied scorpion toxins, these anemone toxins have comparable amino acid content (35-37 residues) and the same number of disulfide bridges (three). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these anemone toxins do not share any sequential similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the impediments to the exploitation of sea anemone toxins in the pharmaceutical industry has been the difficulty associated with their high-throughput discovery and isolation. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent developments in multiple 'omic' technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with advanced bioinformatics, have opened the way for large-scale discovery of novel sea anemone toxins from a range of species. (mdpi.com)
  • cnidarians
  • The research, led by Timothy Jegla, an assistant professor of biology at Penn State, shows that many of these genes, which when mutated in humans can lead to neurological disease, first evolved in the common ancestor of people and a group of animals called cnidarians, which includes jellyfish, coral, and sea anemones. (psu.edu)
  • Many of these genes, which when mutated in humans can lead to neurological disease, first evolved in the common ancestor of people and a group of animals called cnidarians, which includes jellyfish, coral, and sea anemones. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • Unlike some of the better known groups of venomous animals such as snakes and spiders, however, or even their fellow cnidarians the Australian box jellyfish or Irukandji, which (quite appropriately) attract considerable public attention [ 8 , 9 ], the potentially harmful consequences of contact with sea anemones are relatively unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • Jegla
  • Humans and sea anemones went their separate ways evolutionarily speaking roughly 600 million years ago," said Jegla, "so we know that the mechanisms we use to generate impulses in our neurons must be at least that old. (psu.edu)
  • One of the exciting recent findings in evolutionary biology is that the nervous system might be much older than the ancestor of sea anemones and humans," Jegla said. (psu.edu)
  • We don't know how complex electrical signaling is in living comb jellies, but it probably wasn't very complex in our common ancestor," said Jegla. (psu.edu)
  • If our hypothesis turns out to be correct, we may be able to gain some important insights into how nerve cells and circuits evolved by studying sea anemones,' said Jegla. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • basal
  • In this process, part of the basal disc of the sea anemone gets detached as the anemone moves over the substrate, and this piece is able to grow into a new individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • The neurotoxin was named BgK, with the Bg representing the Latin taxonomy (Bunodosoma granulifera) of the specific sea anemone from which the toxin was found, and the K standing for the chemical symbol for potassium owing to its observed effects on K+ channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestor
  • New research shows that a burst of evolutionary innovation in the genes responsible for electrical communication among nerve cells in our brains occurred over 600 million years ago in a common ancestor of humans and the sea anemone. (psu.edu)
  • The team now is interested in figuring out what drove the burst of innovation in ion channels in our common ancestor with sea anemones. (psu.edu)
  • For our purposes in this article, a grouping of pigments based on similar features inherited from a common ancestor. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • California
  • The anemone is known to carpet the bottom of some areas, like Campbell River in British Columbia, and Monterey Bay in California. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is one of the most common anemones found on reefs in the Caribbean Sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • BgK is a neurotoxin found within secretions of the sea anemone Bunodosoma granulifera which blocks voltage-gated potassium channels, thus inhibiting neuronal repolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding sites of the toxin between Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 were found to include three common amino acid residues: Lys-25, Tyr-26, and Ser-23. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anemone may also be found in regions of variable salinity such as estuaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shrimp species Periclimenes aegylios may be found living symbiotically with this sea anemone. (wikipedia.org)
  • coral
  • Aquarium hobbyists integrating Corynactis californica into live coral settings provide hard stubstrates for colonial expansion, since this species kills coral and anemones when competing for resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • The sea anemone benefits from this and the algae have a safe lodging free from the likelihood of predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anemone is analogous to the supervisor who supports the pet project of a subordinate, while the algae are analogous to the subordinate who nurtures the pet project. (chacocanyon.com)
  • white
  • They invite fish to approach by lashing their white antennae, relying on the anemone to keep them safe from attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • A classic double-flowered form of the eastern North American native rue anemone with exquisite, fully double, pale pink flowers that can be white in warm climates. (phoenixperennials.com)
  • small
  • In common with many other venomous animals, they produce venom that is a complex mixture of small molecules, peptides and proteins [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • early
  • One of my favorites of these early spring bloomers is the delicate-appearing rue anemone, common in woodlands throughout the state. (uaex.edu)
  • ancient
  • Recent genome sequences from comb jellies, which also have nervous systems, show that they are a more ancient group of animals than sea anemones and might even be the oldest type of animals that are still living today. (psu.edu)