• species
  • The toxin gene was most likely acquired by Shigella sonnei via genetic exchanges with E. coli and other Shigella species. (eurekalert.org)
  • E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella species generally invade the epithelial lining of the colon, causing severe inflammation and death of the cells lining the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella species invade the host through the M-cells interspersed in the gut epithelia of the small intestine, as they do not interact with the apical surface of epithelial cells, preferring the basolateral side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterium
  • also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic (that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent) and nonsporulating bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia coli is a well-studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This model has successfully predicted mutation frequencies in genes of E. coli and humans. (wiley.com)
  • pathogens
  • Selenite F broth(0.4%) is used as enrichment medium which permits the rapid growth of enteric pathogens while inhibiting the growth of normal flora like E. coli for 6-8 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norovirus
  • These outbreaks were associated most frequently with Cryptosporidium (50.0%) in treated water venues and with toxigenic Escherichia coli (25.0%) and norovirus (25.0%) in freshwater venues. (cdc.gov)
  • severe
  • Finding this gene raises concerns that illness due to Shigella sonnei could become more severe in the future," Watt said. (eurekalert.org)
  • If Shigella is suspected and it is not too severe, the doctor may recommend letting it run its course-usually less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that E. coli is not damaged by penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Because of its long history of laboratory culture and ease of manipulation, E. coli also plays an important role in modern biological engineering and industrial microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (wikipedia.org)
  • current
  • However, due to the medical conditions associated both with E. coli itself and with Shigella the current classification will not be changed, to avoid confusion in medical context. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • E. coli can live on a wide variety of substrates and uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, succinate, ethanol, acetate, and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. (wikipedia.org)