• organism
  • In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between microbes and plasmid DNA is neither parasitic nor mutualistic, because each implies the presence of an independent species living in a detrimental or commensal state with the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids may carry genes that provide resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics in a competitive environmental niche, or the proteins produced may act as toxins under similar circumstances, or allow the organism to utilize particular organic compounds that would be advantageous when nutrients are scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of E. coli as the experimental organism has allowed many generations and large populations to be studied in a relatively short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, due to the long use of E .coli as a principle model organism in molecular biology, a wide array of tools, protocols, and procedures were available for studying changes at the genetic, phenotypic, and physiological levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty (Bengali: আনন্দমোহন চক্রবর্তী Ānandamōhan Cakrabartī), Ph.D. is a Bengali American microbiologist, scientist, and researcher, most notable for his work in directed evolution and his role in developing a genetically engineered organism using plasmid transfer while working at GE, the patent for which led to landmark Supreme Court case, Diamond v. Chakrabarty. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Permits positive selection for inserts, based on the dominance of the wild-type rpsL (ribosomal protein S12) gene in the plasmid. (stanford.edu)
  • Another kind of selectable marker allows for the positive selection of plasmid with cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, and plasmids are considered part of the mobilome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, plasmids provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer within a population of microbes and typically provide a selective advantage under a given environmental state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids almost always carry at least one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rate of degradation is aided by the pcnB (plasmid copy number B) gene product, which polyadenylates the 3' end of RNAI targeting it for degradation by PNPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Plasmids can also provide bacteria with the ability to fix nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of artificially induced competence in E. coli created an efficient and convenient procedure for transforming bacteria which allows for simpler molecular cloning methods in biotechnology and research, and it is now a routinely used laboratory procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes, researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lenski chose to carry out the experiment with the bacteria grown in a glucose-limited minimal medium called DM25, which was initially developed by Bernard Davis for use in isolating auxotrophic mutants of E. coli using penicillin as a selective agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Fusion proteins are produced in E.coli usually in an insoluble form which facilitates purification.Hybrid proteins larger than 90 kDa are not expressed as efficiently as shorter ones. (stanford.edu)
  • However, not all proteins can be successfully expressed in E. coli, or be expressed with the correct form of post-translational modifications such as glycosylations, and other systems may therefore be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general goal of the experiment was to study the response of dehydrated and metabolically dormant microorganisms (spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of Deinococcus radiodurans, conidial spores of Aspergillus species) and cellular constituents (plasmid DNA, proteins, purple membranes, amino acids, urea) to the extremely dehydrating conditions of outer space, in some cases in combination with irradiation by solar UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of E. coli consists of a single circular DNA molecule of approximately 4.6 x 106 nucleotide pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Unlike viruses (which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid), plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth of cells - E. coli cells are more susceptible to be made competent when it is growing rapidly, cells are therefore normally harvested in the early log phase of cell growth when preparing competent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most striking adaptation reported so far is the evolution of aerobic growth on citrate, which is unusual in E. coli, in one population at some point between generations 31,000 and 31,500. (wikipedia.org)
  • larger
  • Assembled by F. Pfeiffer, MPI Biochemie, Martinsried E.coli transformed with this plasmid produce larger colonies when an insert is present in the polylinker than when there is no insert. (stanford.edu)
  • however
  • However, some classes of plasmids encode the conjugative "sex" pilus necessary for their own transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plasmids, however, have no observable effect on the phenotype of the host cell or its benefit to the host cells cannot be determined, and these plasmids are called cryptic plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 1970, Morton Mandel and Akiko Higa showed that E. coli may be induced to take up DNA from bacteriophage λ without the use of helper phage after treatment with calcium chloride solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA, however, suffered a significant amount of strand breaks under these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • The BglII-HindIII fragment (nt 1392 of trpE to the end of the trpD sequence present in pKRS101) was replaced with a BamHI-EcoRI fragment and an EcoRI-HindIII fragment, both from the MCS of M13mp12 to make plasmid pATH1 (see GenBank M32985). (stanford.edu)
  • The SmaI-SmaI fragment from the MCS of pATH1 was deleted and the remaining plasmid religated to make plasmid pATH2 (see GenBank M33624). (stanford.edu)
  • major
  • The order of the major features in this plasmid is: NotI - ampR - ClaI/MCS/EcoRI - attP - NotI - pMB1 ori - tetR. (stanford.edu)
  • personal communication) The order of the major features in this plasmid is:EcoRI - BglII - EcoRI - ClaI - HindIII - BamHI - rpsL - ori - bla. (stanford.edu)
  • The order of the major features in this plasmid is:lacZ'/MCS - pMB1 ori - kanR - oriT/bom. (stanford.edu)