• Organism
  • In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim, by Kitasato Shibasabur┼Ź, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into animals, and that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is difficult to culture, a positive result does not indicate whether the organism contains the toxin producing plasmid, and C tetani may be present without disease in patients with protective immunity. (bmj.com)
  • vaccination
  • DPT vaccination in childhood immunizes against tetanus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Despite the availability of passive immunisation since 1893 and an effective active vaccination since 1923, tetanus remains a major health problem in the developing world and is still encountered in the developed world. (bmj.com)
  • Tetanus is uncommon in the United States , with nearly all cases occurring in adults who were not vaccinated as children, or in those who have not had a booster vaccination in 10 years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Serum
  • Early 1887, in Bonn, Behring had found that the serum of tetanus-immune white rats contained a substance that neutralized anthrax bacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 11 December another report, signed by Behring, discussed the blood-serum therapy not only in the treatment of tetanus, but also of diphtheria. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Certain strains of C. tetani produce different enzymes that are used to externally digest organic material in preparation for fermentation. (blogspot.com)
  • muscular
  • Tetanus is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the central nervous system by causing painful and often violent muscular contractions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • antitoxin
  • In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • The facilities available to manage severe tetanus have a major impact on the therapeutic options and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • citation needed] Sympathetic overactivity (SOA) is common in severe tetanus and manifests as labile hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, peripheral vasculature constriction, profuse sweating, fever, increased carbon dioxide output, increased catecholamine excretion and late development of hypotension. (wikipedia.org)
  • uncommon
  • Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area where the injury is present. (blogspot.com)
  • characteristic
  • Acridine orange stain of characteristic C tetani with endospores wider than the characteristic drumstick shape. (bmj.com)