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  • lockjaw
  • The disease is also known as lockjaw because there is a a common symptom of tetanus in which the jaw muscles become tight and rigid and a person becomes unable to open his mouth. (blogspot.com)
  • spore
  • It is a Gram-positive bacteria as it lacks an outer lipopolysaccharide membrane and possesses only a thick peptidoglycan cell wall.C.tetani is a rod-shaped bacteria and have flagella in vegetative form and drumstick in shape in its spore form. (blogspot.com)
  • present
  • Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area where the injury is present. (blogspot.com)
  • Cephalic tetanus is a rare form of the disease and is occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear or following injuries to the head. (blogspot.com)
  • Organism
  • In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim, by Kitasato Shibasabur┼Ź, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into animals, and that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative genomics with the genomes of Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of gas gangrene, and Clostridium acetobutylicum, a nonpathogenic solvent producer, revealed a remarkable capacity of C. tetani: The organism can rely on an extensive sodium ion bioenergetics. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • soil
  • It has no known function for clostridia in the soil environment where they are normally encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus occurs in all parts of the world but is most frequent in hot and wet climates where the soil contains a lot of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus can occur when an open wound, even a medically insignificant one, is contaminated with soil or animal feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • neonatal
  • nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, an estimated 400,000 cases still occur each year, mainly of neonatal tetanus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In neonatal tetanus, symptoms usually appear from 4 to 14 days after birth, averaging about 7 days. (blogspot.com)
  • Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns, usually those born to mothers who themselves have not been vaccinated. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 1998 neonatal tetanus was common in many developing countries and was responsible for about 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum
  • Early 1887, in Bonn, Behring had found that the serum of tetanus-immune white rats contained a substance that neutralized anthrax bacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 11 December another report, signed by Behring, discussed the blood-serum therapy not only in the treatment of tetanus, but also of diphtheria. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Certain strains of C. tetani produce different enzymes that are used to externally digest organic material in preparation for fermentation. (blogspot.com)
  • antitoxin
  • In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • From the Orange County's Health Officer "The organisms, which were found in extremely poor condition, were identified as Clostridium tetani and Clostridum difficile. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • citation needed] Sympathetic overactivity (SOA) is common in severe tetanus and manifests as labile hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, peripheral vasculature constriction, profuse sweating, fever, increased carbon dioxide output, increased catecholamine excretion and late development of hypotension. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Abstract: Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals, and has been reported for over 24 centuries. (uni-regensburg.de)